INDEX

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Words, names and phrases starting with the letter A

Acceleration (simple explanation) 16.12, (rigorous definition) 17.4, 17.39
   angular see Angular acceleration
   due to gravity 16.16

Accelerometer 18.9

Accuracy 16.24

Acetic acid 17.49

Achiral 20.27

Acid (simple explanation),16.40, (detailed explanation) 17.49
acetic see Acetic acid  
carboxylic see Carboxylic acid
   dissociation constant 17.49, 18.5
   fatty see Fatty acid
nucleic see Nucleic acid
phosphoric see Phosphoric acid
  see also Acidity, Base, pH

Acidity 18.1

Activation energy 16.33

Active damping 18.9

Active process 18.9

Activity (in distribution laws) 20.26

Activity (of solution) 19.3

Activity coefficient 19.3

Actuator 18.9

Adaptive damping see Active damping

Addition (of vectors) 17.2

Adenine see Base (in a nucleic acid)
see also ADP, ATP

Adenosine diphosphate see ADP

Adenosine triphosphate see ATP

Adiabatic compression 20.24
see also Isothermal compression

ADP 16.33, 16.47

Adverse effects (of drugs/food) 16.1

Aether see Ether

Agar 20.40

Agarose see Agar

Agaropectic see Agarose

Aggrecan 20.40

Aileron 17.34

Air-conditioner see Heat pump

Alanine 20.27, 21.4

Aldohexose 20.38

Aliasing 16.14

Alkali 17.50
   see also Acid, Alkalinity, Base, pH

Alkalinity 18.1

Allele 21.8

Alpha (Greek letter α) helix 21.7

Alternating current 17.45

Altimeter 20.25

Amine 20.7

Amino acid 21.4

Ammonia
   molecule 16.40
   production 16.33

Ammonium ion 16.40

Amorphous solid 16.37

Amp (unit of electrical current) 16.25, 17.44

Amphiphile 16.48

Amphiphilc 16.48

Amplitude (of oscillation/wave) 18.10, 18.11

Amu (atomic mass unit) 16.27

Amylopectic see Starch

Amylose see Starch

Analogy (between electrical and mechanical systems) 18.24

Analogy (between motion in a circle, simple harmonic oscillators and waves) 18.11

Analogy (between translational and rotational motion) 17.39

Analyser (of polaroid light) 20.28

Angle 17.11
   of incidence 19.21
   of refraction 19.21
   see also Glide angle

Angular
   acceleration 17.12, 17.39
   displacement 17.11
   frequency 17.12
   kinetic energy see Rotational kinetic energy
   momentum 17.39
   motion see Circular motion
   resonant frequency 18.23
   speed 17.12
   velocity 17.12, 17.39

Animal experiments 18.18

Anion 16.39
see also Polyanion

Anisotropic compression 20.20

Annulus fibrosus 20.39

Anode 19.6

Annihilation of mass to create energy 16.21, 17.41

Anomer see Tautomer

Antibonding molecular orbital 16.31

Anticoagulant 20.40

Anti-node 18.12, 19.13

Anti-parallel double helix 21.6

Anti-particle 17.41

Anti-science 17.9

Arc (of circle) 17.11

Arccos 17.3

Archimedian spiral 21.3

Archimedes’ principle 17.5, (used to measure density) 17.7

Arctan 17.2

Argand plane 18.16

Arnott, Struther 21.7

Articular cartilage 18.9, 20.39
   aggrecan in 20.40

Arup Group (consulting engineers) 18.8

Ashkin, Arthur 20.18

Aspartic acid see Amino acid

Aspden, Richard 16.22, 21.18

Association (statistical), not the same as cause 16.10

Astbury, William T 21.7, 21.12

Atom 16.27
   energy levels for electrons in 16.29

Atomic mass
   relative 16.27
   unit 16.27

Atomic nucleus 16.6, 16.27

Atomic number 16.27

Atomic orbital 16.29

Atomic weight 16.27

ATP 16.33, 16.47

Auxetic material 20.5

Average
   acceleration see Acceleration
   speed see Speed

Avery, Oswald T 21.11

Avogadro’s hypothesis
   as example of scientific theory 16.2

Avogadro’s number 16.27, 17.48
   relating Boltzmann’s constant and ideal gas constant 18.25

Axial direction (in a cyclic molecule) 20.38

Axiom 16.50, 20.1

Axle 21.22

Words, names and phrases starting with the letter B

Babel, tower of see Tower of Babel

Bacteria, growth of 16.5

Bad (subjective word to avoid) 16.36

Base (of a logarithm) 18.3

Base (in DNA/nucleic acid) 21.2, 21.12

Base (something that reacts with a hydrogen ion) 16.40, 17.50
   dissociation constant 17.50, 18.5

Battery see Cell

Balancing 17.22

Beam 21.17, 21.18, 21.19
see also Statically indeterminate

Belief (scientific) 17.9

Bending 20.9, 21.17, 21.19

Bending moment 21.17, 21.19

Benefits (of science) 18.18

Bernouilli, Daniel 17.15, 17.33

Bernouilli, Jacob 18.15

Bernouilli’s equation 17.15
   assumptions in 20.35
   used to explain why planes fly 17.16
   see also Navier-Stokes equation

Beryllium
   atom 16.29

Biceps 18.9

Binary digit see Bit

Biology 16.41

Bird
   flying 17.32
   sitting on electrical cable (without being electrocuted) 17.47

Bit 21.11

Black body see Ideal radiator

Black swan (proving not all swans are white) 16.2

Blinded control trial 16.46

Bohm, David 19.29

Bohr, Niels 16.29, 19.3

Boiling point 16.37

Boltzmann, Ludwig 16.22, 16.35, 16.38, 17.33, 20.26

Boltzmann distribution 20.25, 20.26

Boltzmann statistics see Boltzmann distribution

Boltzmann’s constant 16.35, 16.38
   relationship to ideal gas constant 18.25

Bond (chemical) 16.31
angle 21.7
   coordination, 16.30
   covalent 16.30
   double 16.47
length 21.7
see also Molecular orbital

Bonding molecular orbital 16.31

Bone 18.9, (composition and structure)
   cell 20.15
   fracture 20.14, 20.15
   mineral 20.14
   see also Ear, Elbow

Boot, Harry 18.8

Boron
   atom 16.29

Bose-Einstein condensation 20.26

Bose-Einstein distribution 20.26

Boson 20.26

Boundary layer 0.37

Boyle’s law 18.25

Brake fluid (as example of incompressible liquid) 17.5

Brake horsepower 16.23

Branson, Herman R 21.7

Brittle 20.10
   fracture 20.13

Brønsted, Joannes 17.49

Brønsted-Lowry acid 17.49

Buckling 16.49

Bulk modulus 20.20
   and incompressible fluid flow
   relationship to Young’s modulus 20.21

Bunn, Charles W 21.7

Buoyancy 17.7, 17.18

Burning 16.33
   see also Oxidation

Butterfly effect 19.29

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter C

Calcium
   chloride 16.39
   hydroxide 16.40
   ion 16.39
   oxide 16.39, 16.40
   see also Bone mineral, Hard water

Calculator 18.4

Calibration 16.24

Calorie 16.21, 17.14

Camber 17.34

Cancellous bone 20.14
   fracture 20.15

Cantilever see Beam

Capacitance 18.19, 18.20

Capacitor (brief mention) 16.25, (detailed explanation) 18.19, 18.20
   energy of charged 18.24

Carassus auratus 21.8

Carbohydrate 20.37
   see also Polysaccharide

Carbon
   atom 16.29

Carbon dioxide
   formation 16.33
   molecule 16.30

Carboxylic acid 16.40

Carnot, Sadi 20.24

Caro, Anthony 18.8

Cartesian coordinate system 16.50
   see also Polar coordinate system, Vectors

Cartilage 20.39
   see also Articular cartilage

Catalyst 16.33

Cathode 19.6

Cation 16.39

Cause, not the same as association 16.10

Cavity magnetron 18.8

Cell (electrical) 19.6, 19.7

Cell (in foam) 20.5, 20.39

Cell (smallest part of a living thing) 16.18
   in bone 20.15
division see Meiosis, Mitosis
   endosteal 20.15
   hair see Ear
   mast see Mast cell

Cellulose 20.40

Celsius (scale of temperature) 16.34

Central limit theorem 16.26

Centre
of curvature 21.19
   of gravity 17.23
   of mass 17.21, 17.23

Centroid 17.21, 17.23

Centrifugal force (brief mention) 17.13, (explanation) 17.29
see also Centrifugation

Centrifugation 17.29, 21.13

Centrifuge see Centrifugation

Centripetal force 17.13
   and shape of earth 17.9
   see also Satellite, Turning

Ceramic 20.14

CFD see Computational fluid dynamics

CGS units 17.14

Chaos theory 19.29

Chaplin, Charlie 20.18

Chargaff, Erwin 21.2

Charge (electrical) 16.25, 17.44
   of electron 16.27
   of neutron 16.27
   of proton 16.27

Charles’ law 18.25

Chemical bond 16.31

Chemical equation 16.31

Chemical reaction 16.33
   of optical isomers 20.29

Chemistry 16.41

Chiral 20.27

Chirality 20.27
of amino acids 21.4
of three-dimensional spiral 21.3

Chlorine
   atom 16.27, 16.39
   ion 16.39

Chlorophyll 20.40

Christ, Jesus 20.18

Chromatid 21.9

Chromosome 21.9, 21.10, 21.11

Churchill, Winston S 20.18

Circle (geometry of) 21.3
see also Circular motion

Circuit (electrical) 19.6

Circular motion 18.11
   see also Aliasing, Rotational motion

Circularly polarised light 20.32

Cis (form of molecule) 20.32

Cis-unsaturated fat 16.47

Cis-platin 20.32

Clockwork 16.49

Closed-cell foam 20.39

Closed system 16.34

Cochlea see Ear

Coefficient of kinetic friction 16.20, 17.35

Coefficient of sliding friction see coefficient of kinetic friction

Coherent (light) 19.20

Collagen 20.14, 20.39
triple helix 21.6
x-ray diffraction by 21.7

Collision see Elastic collision, Inelastic collision

Colour 19.9

Combustion chamber 17.26

Complex conjugate 18.16

Complex number 18.16

Compliance (material property) 20.6

Component (of a vector) 16.50, (two-dimensional) 17.2, (three-dimensional) 17.3

Compound 16.30

Compression 16.49
   anisotropic see Anisotropic compression
   of gas 20.23, 20.24
   isotropic see Isotropic compression
   see also Compressible fluid

Compressible fluid 20.35

Compressive force/strain/stress 16.49, 20.2

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) 16.43, 17.17, 20.36
   validation 16.43

Computer model 19.17
   of infection 20.12
   see also Computational fluid dynamics, Finite element analysis

Condensation polymer 20.7

Conduction band 16.31

Conductor (of electricity) 17.44

Conduction (of heat) 19.14, 19.15

Conductivity, thermal see Thermal conductivity

Cone 17.23

Confidence interval 16.28

Confidence limits 16.26, 16.28

Confusion, in science 17.14

Conjugate acid 17.50

Conjugate base 17.50

Conservation of energy 16.21
   in fluid flow 17.15

Conservation of mass
   in fluid flow 17.15

Conservation of momentum 17.30

Constant of integration 17.19

Constructive interference 18.10

Continuity equation (in fluid flow) 17.15

Control (in experiment), 16.46

Control
    of chemical composition of body 20.16
   of movement of body 18.9
   of temperature of body 20.17

Convection 19.18

Convergent series 17.11, 18.15

Coordinate system see Cartesian coordinate system, Polar coordinate system
   see also Vectors

Coordination bond 16.30, 16.31, 16.40

Corey, Robert B, 21.7

Cornering see Turning

Cortical bone 20.14
   fracture 20.15

Cosine 16.50, 17.2
   differentiation 17.13
   series 18.17
   small angle approximation 18.6
   of sum of angles 19.13
   wave 16.50

Coulomb (unit of electrical charge) 16.25, 17.44

Covalent bond 16.30, 16.31

Covid-19 20.12, 20.18

Crick, Francis HC 16.15, 21.2, 21.12, 21.14

Cross-link 20.8
   in gel 20.39
in protein 21.4
   in rubber 20.8

Cross product (of vectors) (brief mention) 17.29, (explanation) 17.37

Crossing-over (chromosomes) 21.10

Cryogenic preservation 16.32

Crystal 16.37
   defect in 18.26
   ionic 16.39

Crystallography see X-ray crystallography

Cube-root 17.28, 18.2

Cumulative sum 17.11

Curie, Marie 19.3, 20.18

curl 20.33

Current (electrical) 16.25, 17.44
   effect on human body 17.47
   see also Alternating current

Curvature 21.19

Curve-fitting 19.2

Cyclic compound 20.38

Cycloid 17.40

Cysteine see Amino acid

Cytosine see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter D

D (form of optical isomer) 20.27

Dali Lama 20.18

Dalton (unit) 16.27

Dalton, John 16.27

Damping 18.9
   in human body 18.9

Darwin, Charles 20.18

Darwin’s bulldog see Huxley, Thomas

Dashpot 18.9

Da Vinci, Leonardo 17.33

Davisson, Clinton 19.24

De Broglie, Louis 19.24, 19.29

Debye, Peter 19.3

Debye-Hückel theory 19.3

Decay
   exponential (simple definition) 16.6
   radioactive 16.6

Deception see Diminishing deception

Defect (in crystal) 18.26

Definite integral 17.19

Deflection (of a beam) 21.17

Deformation
   (change in dimension of material) 20.2
   (change in shape of material) 20.19
   (isotropic compression of material) 20.20
   of spring (in tension/compression) 16.49, (in torsion)
   see also Elasticity, Hooke’s law, Poisson’s ratio, Plastic deformation

Degree (measurement of angle) 17.11

Deionised water 19.1

Del ( ) 20.34
   see also Laplacian

Delocalised molecular orbital 16.31, (and peptide bond) 21.7

Democratus 16.27

Density 16.44
   changes in fluid 20.25, 20.35
   measurement (solid) 17.7
   of water 16.45
   see also Archimedes’ principle, Density gradient ultracentrifugation, Floating

Density gradient ultracentrifugation 21.13
see also Semi-conservative replication

Deoxyribonucleic acid see DNA

Deoxyribose 21.2

Descartes, Rene 16.50

Deflection (of a beam) 21.17

Design
   of experiments 16.3

Destructive interference 18.10

Determinant (of a matrix) 17.37
   representing curl 20.33

Deterministic (view of physics) 19.29

Deuterium 16.27

Development (of living things) 16.18

DEXA 20.14

Dextrorotatory 20.29

Dhanjal, Avtarjeet 16.22

Diagonal matrix 20.21

Dialysis 18.27
   in kidney 20.16

Diastereoisomers 20.30

Dielectric 18.19
   breakdown 18.19

Dielectric constant 16.25
   and solubility in water 16.39

Diet
   salt in 19.4

Difference, significant 16.28

Differential equation (brief mention) 18.6, (detailed explanation) 19.10
   see also Partial differential equation

Differentiation 17.4
   changing a variable 17.4
   of cosine and sine 17.13
   of exponential functions 18.15
   of logarithms 18.15
   partial see Partial differentiation
   of product of two functions 17.4

Diffraction 19.20
   of electrons 19.23
   of x-rays by rubber 20.11

Diffusion 18.26
   constant 19.14
   equation see Diffusion equation
   gradient 19.14
   through membrane 18.27
   see also Fick’s law

Diffusion equation 19.15
   solution 19.16

Digestion 18.27
of fat 16.47
of protein 21.4

Dimensions (relationship to mass, length and time) 17.41

Dimensional analysis 17.42

Diminishing deception 17.25

Dirac, Paul AM 19.27, 20.36

Direction
   of force 16.50
   of polarisation 20.18
   of propagation (of wave) 18.10

Discharge (of capacitor) 18.19

Discontinuous helix 21.6

Disorder
   related to entropy 16.38

Displacement 17.4, 17.39
   angular 17.11, 17.39

Disaccharide 20.38

Dissipation of energy 17.17

Dissociation constant see Acid dissociation constant, Base dissociation constant

Dissolve 16.39

Distance 16.12
   see also Light year

Distilled water 19.1

Distribution
   Boltzmann see Boltzmann distribution
   Gaussian see Gaussian distribution
   laws (for particles with different energies) 20.26
   normal see Gaussian distribution

div 20.33

DNA (chemical composition), 21.2, (genetic material) 21.11, (double helix) 21.12
see also Semi-conservative replication

Dominant (genetics) 21.8

Dot product (of vector) 17.13

Double-blinded controlled trial 16.46

Double bond 16.47

Double helix (brief mention) 21.2, (detailed explanation) 21.6
see also DNA

Drag 17.17
   see also Damping

Driveshaft 21.22

Drivetrain 21.22

Drosophila melanogaster 21.10

Drug (testing) 16.1, 16.46, 18.18

Dry cell (electrical) 19.6

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry see DEXA

Ductile 20.10, 20.12
   fracture 20.12

Dynamic stability 21.15

Dynamics 21.15

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter E

e (2.718…) (brief mention) 18.3, (detailed explanation) 18.15

Ear 18.13

Earth (electrical) 17.44

Earth (planet)
   escaping 17.27
   gravitational field of
   movement in solar system 16.9
   shape of 17.9

Education (in science) 16.15, 17.44
   see also Studying mechanics

Einstein, Albert 16.11, 16.15, 16.16, 19.3, 19.23, 19.26, 19.29, 20.18

Elastic collision 17.30

Elastica 21.19

Elastic material 20.6, 20.11

Elasticity 20.6
   of rubber 20.11
   see also Viscoelasticity

Elbow (bending of) 18.9

Electric field (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.23
   see also Electric vector, Electromagnetic wave

Electric vector (electromagnetic radiation) 20.28

Electrical charge 16.25

Electrical current 16.25
   see also Alternating current

Electrical energy 17.45

Electrical resistance see Resistance

Electrode 19.7
   see also Anode, Cathode

Electromagnetic radiation 19.9
   see also Polarised light

Electromagnetic wave 19.9
   speed 19.12

Electron 16.27
   energy levels in atoms 16.29
   energy levels in molecules
   spin 16.29, 16.31
   wave see Wave-particle duality
   see also Photoelectron

Electronic music see Music

Element 16.27

Embryo 21.10

Emulsifying agent 16.48

Emulsion 16.48

Enantiomer see Optical isomer

Endosteal cell see Bone cell

Energy 16.21
   activation see Activation energy
   use by living things 16.18
   zero-point see Zero-point energy
   see also Electrical energy, Free energy, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, Wave energy, Work

Energy levels
   for electrons in atoms 16.29

Engineering
   strain see Strain
   stress see Stress

Enrichment of uranium-238 16.27

Entropy 16.34
   Boltzmann’s (statistical) definition 16.35, 16.38
   and life 16.41
   negative see Information
   see also Elasticity of rubber, Maxwell’s demon, Second law of thermodynamics

Environment (influencing phenotype) 21.8

Enzyme
   lock and key analogy for substrate binding 20.29

Epidemic 20.12

Equatorial direction (in molecule) 20.38

Equilibrium 20.33, 21.15, 21.16
see also Metastable equilibrium, Stable equilibrium, Unstable equilibrium

Escape velocity 17.2

Essential amino acid 21.4

Essential fatty acid 16.47

Ether (medium for propagating electromagnetic waves) 19.9

Euler, Leonard 18.17

Euler’s relation 18.17

Everett, Hugh 19.29

Exercise
   and osteoporosis prevention 20.15

exp see e

Experiment
   decisions based on 16.28
   design of 16.3
   on living animals 18.18
   purpose of 16.3, 20.1
   testing a model 16.42
   see also Thought experiment

Excited state 16.29

Exponential decay (simple explanation) 16.6, (explanation using e) 18.15

Exponential growth (simple explanation) 16.5, (explanation using e) 18.15

Exponential function 18.15
   representing simple harmonic oscillator/wave 18.17

Extensive property 16.34

Extracellular matrix 20.39

Extrapolation 16.8

Extrinsic property 16.34

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter F

F1 hybrid 21.8

Factorial (n!) 18.15

Faith (in science) 16.32

Falling 16.42, 17.20
   in fluid 17.17
   see also Parachute

Famous scientists 20.18

Farad (unit of capacitance) 18.19

Faraday, Michael 18.21

Fat 16.47

Fatality rate 20.12

Fatigue fracture 20.13

Fatty acid 16.40, 16.47

FEA see Finite element analysis

Fermi-Dirac distribution 20.26

Fermion 20.26
   chirality of 20.27

Fetus see Foetus

Feynman, Richard 17.15, 19.29

Fibrous protein 21.7

Fick’s law 19.14
   see also Diffusion equation

Field
   electrical (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.24
   gravitational (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.24
   magnetic (simple explanation) 16.25

Filler (in material) 20.8
   in bone 20.14

Finite element analysis (FEA)
   validation 16.43

First law (Newton’s) see Newton’s laws of motion

First law of thermodynamics 16.21, 16.34

Fischer projection 20.38

Fixed points (for defining temperature scale) 16.34

Flight see Flying

Floating 16.44, 17.6
   ship 17.8

Flow 17.15
   of electric charge 17.44
   property of fluid 16.37
   in a tube 20.37
   see also Bernoulli’s equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Poisseuille’s equation

Fluorine
   atom 16.29
   molecule 16.30

Fluid 16.37
   see also Density, Diffusion, Flow, Ideal gas, Incompressible fluid, Real gas

Flying
   bird 17.32
   impossibility (according to Lord Kelvin) 17.33
   plane 17.16
   rocket 17.26
   see also Gliding

Foam 20.5, 20.39
   and bone structure 20.14

Foetus 21.10

Food
   salt in 19.4

Force (simple explanation) 16.4, (more mathematical explanation) 17.39
   acting on a solid object in fluid 17.6, 17.7. (including viscosity) 17.17
   centrifugal see Centrifugal force
   centripetal see Centripetal force
   compressive see Compressive force
   direction of 16.50
   drag see Drag force
   exerted by charge 16.25
   exerted by magnetic field on a moving charge 16.25
   reaction see Reaction force
   relationship to momentum (simple explanation) 16.13, (more rigorous explanation) 17.39
   tensile see Tensile force
   see also Deformation, Isotropic compression, Vector

Forced convection 19.18

Foster and Partners (architects) 18.8

Foucault’s pendulum 16.9

Fourier, Joseph 18.14

Fourier series 18.14

Fracture 20.9, (detailed explanation) 20.13
   of bone 20.14
   repair (in bone) 20.15
   stress 20.10

Frame of reference (defining motion) 16.9, 16.12, 17.29
   see also Inertial frame of reference, Non-inertial frame of reference, Rotating frame of reference

Franklin, Rosalind E 21.12

Free-body diagram 21.15

Free energy 18.27

Free convection 19.18

Free surface 16.37

Frequency 16.14
   analysis 18.14
   angular see Angular frequency
   fundamental see Fundamental frequency
   natural see Natural frequency
   of pendulum 18.6, 18.7, 18.8
   resonant see Resonant frequency
   response 18.23
   spatial see Spatial frequency
   of wave 18.10
   see also Harmonic, Pitch

Friction 16.19, 17.35
   coefficient of 16.20, 17.35

Fructose 20.38

Fruit-fly see Drosophila melanogaster

Function (mathematics) 19.10

Fundamental frequency 18.12, 18.14, 19.13
   see also Harmonic, Resonance

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter G

Galilean principle of relativity 16.4, 16.12, 17.29

Gamete 21.10

Gamma ray 19.9

Gandhi, Mahatma 20.18

Gas 16.37
   compression of 20.23, 20.24
   constant see Ideal gas constant
   see also Fluid, Ideal Gas, Real gas

Gaussian distribution 16.26, 16.8

Gedankenexperiment see Thought experiment

Gel 20.39
   polysaccharide 20.40

Gene 21.8, (made of DNA) 21.11
see also Chromosome

Genetic information (brief mention) 21.2, (more detail) 21.11, copying 21.14

Genghis Khan 20.18

Genotype 21.8

Geometric centre see Centroid

Geometric isomerism 20.32

Geostationary satellite 17.28

Gerlach, Walther 16.29

Germer, Lester 19.24

Gibbs function 18.27

Girls (preparing them to study science) 17.46

Glass 16.37

Glide angle 17.31, 17.32

Glider 17.31

Gliding 17.31, (bird) 17.32

Globular protein 21.4

Glutamine see Amino acid

Glucose 20.37

Glycine see Amino acid

Glycogen 20.40

Golden spiral 21.5

Golden ratio (1.618…) 20.31
see also Golden spiral

Goldfish 21.8

Good (subjective word to avoid) 16.36

Goose bumps see Goose pimples

Goose pimples 20.17

grad 20.33

Gravitational constant 16.16

Gravitational potential energy 16.21

Gravitational field (simple explanation) 16.16, (further explanation) 17.24
   of earth 17.9
   see also Escape velocity, Satellite

Gravitational waves 16.16

Gravity 16.16, 17.20
   centre of see Centre of gravity
   see also Gravitational field

Green, Michael B 20.36

Greenstick fracture 20.14

Ground state 16.29

Growth
   of bacteria 16.5
   exponential see Exponential growth
   of living things 16.18

Guanine see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Guitar 18.12

Gurdon, John 20.18

Guy rope 21.16

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter H

Haemoglobin 21.4

Haber-Bosch process 16.33

Hair cell see Ear

Half-life 16.6
   of discharging capacitor 18.19
   of radium 16.36

Hammer, throwing the see Throwing the hammer

Hard water 19.1

Harmonic 18.12, 18.14, 19.13

Hawking, Stephen 16.22, 20.18, 20.36

Heat 16.21, 16.34, 16.35
   molecular motion and 16.35, 16.38
   see also Conduction (of heat), Convection, Radiation

Heat pump (simple explanation)16.34, (detailed explanation) 18.30

Heisenberg, Werner 19.3, 19.26

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle (simple explanation) 16.29, (detailed explanation) 19.26, (alternative view) 19.29
   and zero-point energy 16.38

Helix 21.6

Helix net 21.6

Helmholtz function 18.27

Hemoglobin see Haemoglobin

Henderson, Richard 20.18

Henry (unit of inductance) 18.21

Henry, Joseph 18.21

Heparin 20.40

Herd immunity 20.12

Hertz (unit of frequency) 16.14

Hexose 20.38

Hidden variable theory 19.29

Hinny 16.18

Histone 21.11

Hitler, Adolf 20.18

Homeopathy 16.46

Homeostasis 20.16, 20.17

Homogeneous
   material 20.21

Hooke, Robert 20.3

Hooke’s law (brief mention) 20.2, (detailed explanation) 20.3

Hormone replacement therapy see HRT

Horsepower 16.23

HRT 20.15

Hückel, Erich 19.3

Huggins, Maurice L 21.7

Humerus see Elbow

Hund, Friedrich 16.29

Huxley, Thomas 20.18

Huygen’s principle 19.20

Hyaluronan 20.40

Hyaluronic acid see Hyaluronan

Hydrochloric acid 17.49

Hydrogel 20.39

Hydrogen
   atom 16.27, 16.29 see also MRI
   bond see Hydrogen bond
   ion 16.39, 16.40 see also Acid, pH
   isotopes 16.27
   molecule 16.30
   reaction with nitrogen 16.33

Hydrogen bond 16.45, (in alpha helix) 21.7, (in DNA) 21.12

Hydronium ion 16.40, 18.5

Hydrophilic 16.48

Hydrophobic 16.48

Hydroxide ion 16.40
   see also Alkali, pH

Hydroxyapatite 20.14

Hydroxyproline see Amino acid

Hypertension 17.14

Hyperthermia 20.17

Hypothalamus 20.17

Hypothermia 20.17

Hypothesis
   null 16.28
   scientific 16.2
   statistical 16.1 16.28

Hysteresis 20.11

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter I

Ice see Water

i (square root of -1) 18.16

i, j, k (unit vectors) 17.2, 17.3

Ideal gas 18.25
   compression of 20.23, 20.24
   see also Ideal gas equation, Real gas

Ideal gas constant 18.25

Ideal gas equation 18.25
   application to solutions 18.28, 19.3
   see also Partial differentiation

Ideal heat engine (brief explanation) 20.24

Ideal radiator 19.19

Ideal solution 18.28
   see also Real solution

Imaginary number 18.15

Imaginary part (of complex number) 18.15

Immunity see Herd immunity

Impedance (capacitative) 18.20, (inductive)18.22, (total) 18.23

Impersonality (of science) 16.22

Incoherent (light) 19.20

Incompressible fluid (simple explanation) 17.5, (detailed explanation) 20.35

Incus see Ear

Indefinite integral 17.19

Indicator (for measuring pH) 18.1

Inductance 18.21, 18.22

Induction (electromagnetic) 18.21

Inductor 18.21
   energy of current flowing in 18.24

Inelastic collision 17.30

Inertia see Mass, Rotational inertia

Inertial frame of reference 16.12, 17.29

Infection 20.12

Infinite series 17.11

Information 19.30
genetic see Genetic information

Infrared radiation 19.9
   heat transmission by 19.19

Insulin 21.4

Integer 18.16

Integral see Definite integral, Indefinite integral, Line integral
   see also Integration

Integral helix 21.6

Integration 17.19
   numerical 19.8 (see also
   of sin2θ 19.8
   see also Differential equation

Intensity (of wave) 19.19

Intensive property 16.34

Interpretations of quantum mechanics 19.29

Interference 18.10
   see also Diffraction

Intervertebral disc 18.9, 20.39

Intrinsic property 16.34

Intuition 19.12, 20.13

Ion 16.39, 16.40
   pump 20.16

Ionic compound 16.39

Iron
   atom 16.27
   catalyst in Haber-Bosch process 16.33
   ion 16.39
   oxides 16.39
   dielectric constant 16.25

Irrational number 17.11, 18.15

Isotope 16.27
see also Semi-conservative replication

Isomerism 20.32
   see also Optical isomer

Isoprene see Rubber

Isothermal compression 20.23

Isotropic
   compression 20.20, 20.21
   material 20.21

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter J

Jackman, L J 21.18

Jardine, Lisa 20.3

Joist see Beam

Joule (unit of work) 16.20, (unit of energy) 16.21

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter K

Kelvin (Lord) see Thomson, William

Kelvin (scale of temperature) 16.34

Keratin 21.7

Kidney 20.16

Kilogramme (unit of mass) 16.13

Kinetic energy 16.21, 17.38, 17.39
   of rolling object 17.40

Kirchhoff’s current rule 17.47

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter L

L (form of optical isomer) 20.27

Lactose 20.38

Laevorotatory 20.29

Laguerre polynomial 19.28

Lamb, Horace 17.15

Laminar flow 17.15

Laplace, P-S 19.12

Laplacian (operator) 19.12
   see also Del

Larynx 18.13

Laser 19.20

Latent heat (brief description) 16.18, (explanation) 16.37
   of vaporisation (related to convection) 19.18
   of vaporisation (related to heat pump) 18.30

Latex see Rubber

Law, scientific see Scientific law

LCAO see Linear combination of atomic orbitals

Le Chatelier’s principle 20.16

Left-handed helix 21.6

Legendre polynomial 19.28

Length 16.12

Lennard-Jones potential function 20.3

Lennon, John 20.18

Lewis, Gilbert N 17.49

Lewis acid 17.49

Levitt, Michael 20.18

Levorotatory see Laevorotatory

Life 16.18
   on other planets 19.22

Lift (aerodynamics) 17.16, 17.31, 17.32

Light 19.9
   heat transmission by 19.19
   year see Light year
   see also Coherent, Diffraction, Photoelectric effect, Polarised light, Refraction

Light year 19.22

Limit (mathematics) 17.4

Limitations (of science) 16.22, 16.32, 20.12

Limiting value (mathematics) 17.4

Line integral 17.36

Linear combination
   of atomic orbitals (LCAO) 16.31, 19.28
   of solutions of differential equation 19.10

Linear differential equation 19.10

Lintel see Beam

Lipid vesicles 16.18

Liquid 16.37
   pressure in 17.5
   stationary 17.5
   see also Fluid, Ideal solution, Real solution, Water

Lithium
   atom 16.29

Litmus 18.1

Logarithm 18.3
   in calculation 18.4
see also Logarithmic spiral

Logarithmic spiral 21.5

Lone pair (of electrons) 16.40

Longitudinal strain 20.5

Longitudinal wave 18.13

Lorenz, Edward 19.29

Loudspeaker 18.13

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter M

Mach, Ernst 19.26, 20.35

Mach number 20.35

Maclaurin’s theorem 20.3

Macleod, Colin M 21.11

Macron, Emmanuel 20.18

Magnet 16.25

Magnetic bracelet 16.46

Magnetic vector (electromagnetic radiation) 20.28

Magnetic field 16.25
   see also Electromagnetic wave

Magnesium (in water) see Hard water

Magnetism
   of oxygen 16.31
   paramagnetism 16.31

Magnitude (of complex number/vector) see Modulus

Malleus see Ear

Mann-Whitney test 16.28

Mao Zhedong 20.18

Marrow see Bone

Marshall, Barry 20.18

Marx, Karl 20.18

Mass 16.13, 17.39
   centre of see Centre of mass
   of electron 16.27
   measuring 16.17
   of neutron 16.27
   of proton 16.27
   of ship 17.8

Mass number 16.27

Mast cell 20.40

Mathematics, its nature and role in science 16.50, 17.25, 20.1

Matrix (mathematics) 20.21
   multiplication 20.21
   representation of a vector (brief comment) 17.3
   transpose of see Transpose

Maximum (value of function) 20.37

Maxwell, James Clerk 16.11, 16.15, 16.22, 16.35, 16.38, 17.33, 19.26, 19.29, 19.30

Maxwell’s demon 19.30

McCarty, Maclyn 21.11

Mead, Carver 19.29

Mean (average) 16.24
   in normal distribution 16.26

Measuring
  
angle 17.11
   distance/length 16.12
   electron energy levels in atoms 16.29
   mass 16.13, 16.17, (of ship) 17.8
   movement 16.12
   pH 18.1
   power (of a person) 16.23
   temperature 16.24, 16.34
   time 16.12
   weight 16.17

Mechanical energy 16.21

Mechanics 20.33

Meiosis (brief mention) 21.9, (detailed explanation) 21.10

Melting point 16.37

Membrane (cell) 21.9

Mendel, Gregor 21.7

Meselson, Mathew s 21.14

Metastable equilibrium 21.16

Methane
   molecule 16.30

Metre (unit of length) 16.12

Micelle 16.48

Microphone 18.13

Microwave 19.9
   heat transmission by 19.19
   oven 18.8

Miescher, Friedrick 21.2

Millenium bridge 18.8

Millikan, Robert A 16.27

Mineral see Bone mineral

Minimum (value of a function) 20.37

Mitosis 21.9

Model 16.42, 18.6, 18.26
   computer 17.9, 19.17, of molecule 21.7
   of falling object 16.42
   of molecule see Molecular model
   validation 16.43

Modulus (measuring deformation)
   relationship between moduli 20.21, 20.22
   see Bulk modulus, Tangent modulus, Shear modulus, Young’s modulus

Modulus (of a vector) 16.50, 17.2, 17.3, (of a complex number) 18.16

Molar solution 17.48

Molarity 17.48

Mole (in chemistry) 17.48

Molecular model 16.30, 21.7

Molecular orbital 16.31

Molecular weight 20.7

Molecule 16.30

Moment (of a force) 21.15
see also Torque

Moment of inertia see Rotational inertia

Momentum (simple explanation) 16.13, (vector definition) 17.39
   see also Angular momentum, Conservation of momentum

Monomer 20.7
   residue 20.7

Monosaccharide 20.38

Monroe, Marilyn 20.18

Moore, Kate 16.36

Morgan, Thomas H 21.10

Mortality rate 20.12

Movement 16.4
   of body 18.9
   change in 16.13
   measuring 16.12
   of planets in solar system 16.9
   of sun (relative to earth) 16.9

MRI 18.8

Mule 16.18

Multiverse 19.29

Muscle
   controlling and initiating movement 18.9
   conversion of chemical to mechanical energy in 16.33

Music, electronic 18.14
   see also Sound

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter N

Nabla see Del

Natural frequency 18.8, 18.24
   and standing wave 18.12

Nautilus (marine animal) 21.5

Navier, Claude-Louis 20.36

Navier-Stokes equation (brief mention) 17.15, 17.42, (detailed explanation) 20.36
   derivation of Poiseuille’s equation from 20.37

Negative entropy see Information

Negative numbers 18.16

Negative slope 20.37

Negentropy see Information

Neon
   atom 16.29

Neutral (solution) 18.1, 18.5

Neutral axis (beam) 21.17

Neutron 16.27

Newton, Isaac 16.2, 16.11, 17.33, 20.36

Newton (unit of force) 16.13

Newton’s law of gravitation 17.24

Newton’s laws of motion 16.2
   first law 16.4
      see also Centrifugal force, Frame of reference, Galilean principle of relativity
   second law 16.4, 16.13
      opposed by friction 16.19
      and zero-point energy 16.38
   third law
      launching bird flight 17.32
      and Rocket propulsion 17.26
      see also Reaction force

Nitrogen
   atom 16.29
   molecule 16.30
   oxides 16.30
   reaction with hydrogen 16.33

Node (wave) 18.12, 19.13

Non-ideal gas see Real gas

Non-inertial frame of reference 17.29

Non-integral helix 21.6

Non-parametric test (statistical) 16.28

Normal distribution see Gaussian distribution

Normalisation 19.16, 19.28

Novoselov, Konstantin 20.18

Nucleic acid 21.2

Nucleotide 21.2

Nucleus (atomic) 16.6, 16.27

Nucleus (of biological cell) 21.9

Nucleus pulposus 20.39

Null hypothesis 16.28

Number,
   irrational see Irrational number
   rational 17.11
   writing 16.7

Numerical
   integration 19.8
   methods 19.17
   see also Computational fluid dynamics, Finite element analysis

Nyjquist , Harry 16.14

Nyjquist
   criterion 16.14   frequency 16.14

Nylon 20.7

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter O

Obvious (facts, ideas etc.) 17.1

Occam’s razor 16.9

Oestrogen 20.15

Ohm (unit of electrical resistance) 17.44

Ohm’s law 17.44

Oil 16.47, 16.48

Oligosaccharide 20.38

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats 16.47

Open-cell foam 20.39

Optical activity 20.29

Optical isomer 20.27
   properties of 20.29
   see also Diastereoisomer, Optical isomerism

Optical isomerism 20.32
   of sugars 20.38
   see also Optical isomer

Optical rotation 20.29

Orbit (of satellite) 17.28

Orbital
   atomic 16.29
   molecular 16.31

Origin
   of Cartesian coordinate system 16.50
of Polar coordinate system 21.3

Orthogonal coordinate system 16.50
   see also Vectors

Orthopter 17.32

Oscillating spring 18.11

Oscillation
   in observations 16.8
   see also Simple harmonic oscillator

Osmosis 18.27
   see also Reverse osmosis

Osmotic pressure 18.27, 18.28, 19.3
   see also Pressure

Osteoblast see Bone cell

Osteoclast see Bone cell

Osteocyte see Bone cell

Osteoporosis 20.14, 20.15

Ovum 21.9, 21.10

Oxidation 19.5
   state see Oxidation state
see also Redox potential

Oxidation state 16.39

Oxides
   of carbon 16.33
   of nitrogen 16.30

Oxidising agent 19.5

Oxygen
   atom 16.27, 16.29
   ion 16.39
   molecule 16.30, 16.31
   paramagnetism 16.31
   reactions of 16.33

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter P

p (energy level/orbital)
   in atom 16.29
   in ion 16.39, 16.40
   in molecule 16.30

p (value from statistical test) 16.28

Pandemic 20.12

Panting (for temperature control in dogs) 20.17

Parachute 17.18

Parallel double helix 21.6

Parallel universe 19.29

Paramagnetism 16.31

Partial differential equation 19.12
   changing a variable 19.16
   of product of two functions 19.16
   see also Del, Laplacian operator

Partial differentiation 19.11

Particle 17.21

Pascal (unit of pressure) 17.5

Passive damping 18.9

Passive process 18.9

Path difference (between waves) 18.10

Pauling, Linus 16.31, 21.7

Pea 21.8

Pendulum   (as example of simple harmonic oscillator) 18.6, (simple analysis of motion) 18.7
   Foucault’s 16.9

Pentose 20.38

Peptide bond 21.7

Percentage strain 20.2

Periodic time see Time period

Permanent hardness (of water) 19.1

Permanent magnets 16.25

Permeability (magnetic)16.25

Permeability of free space 16.25

Permittivity (electrical) 16.25

Permittivity of free space 16.25

PET (positron emission tomography) 17.41

pH 18.1
   calculating 18.5
   control in body 20.16
    meter 18.1

Phase (of oscillation/wave) 18.10

Phase (of matter) 16.37

Phenotype 21.8

Phi (Greek letter ϕ) and psi (Greek letter ψ) angles determining three-dimensional shape of a protein chain 21.7

Phosphoric acid 21.2

Photoelectric effect (brief description) 16.18, (detailed explanation) 19.23

Photoelectron 19.23

Photon 19.23

Photosynthesis 20.40

Physics 16.41

Pi (Greek letter π, 3.141…) 17.11

Pi (Greek letter π) molecular orbital 16.31

Piano 18.12

Pilot wave model 19.29

Pisum sativum 21.8

Pitch (helix) 21.6

Pitch (music) 18.12

pKa 18.5

pKb 18.5

Placebo 16.46

Planck, Max 19.19

Planck’s constant 19.19

Plane see Flying, Glider, Turning

Plane of polarisation 20.28

Plane polarised light see Polarised light

Planet
   movement in solar system 16.9

Plastic (material) see Polymer

Plastic deformation 20.10

Play (importance for developing intuition) 20.13

Point of inflexion see Saddle point

Poiseuille, Jean 20.37

Poiseuille’s equation 17.42
   derivation by dimensional analysis 17.42
   derivation from Navier-Stokes equation 20.37

Poisson’s ratio 20.5
   in relationships between moduli 20.1, 20.22
   of rubber 20.11

Polar coordinate system 20.37, (complete simple explanation) 21.3
see also Cartesian coordinate system

Polar second moment of area 21.21
see also Second moment of area

Polarimeter 20.28

Polarisation
   direction of see Direction of polarisation
   plane of see Plane of polarisation
   see also Polaroid

Polarised light 20.28, 20.32

Polariser 20.28
   see also Polaroid

Polaroid 20.28

Polyanion 21.2

Polybutene 20.7

Polycrystalline 16.37

Polyethene 20.7

Polyethylene see Polyethene

Polymer 20.7
   see also Nucleic acid, Polysaccharide, Protein, Rubber

Polynomial (curve) 19.2

Polynucleotide 21.2

Polypeptide 21.4

Polysaccharide (brief mention)20.38, (detailed account) 20.40

Polystyrene 20.9

Polythene see Polyethene

Polyunsaturated fat 16.47

Poly(vinyl chloride) 20.7

Positive slope 20.37

Positron 17.41
   emission tomography see PET

Potential (electrical) 17.44
   in nerve 18.13
   redox see Redox potential

Potential difference (electrical) 17.44
see also Potential

Potential energy 16.21
   of stretched spring 16.49, 17.39
see also Lennard-Jones potential function

Power (of number) 18.2

Power (physics) 16.23
   of wave 19.8

Precision 16.24
   in calculated results   16.7
   limiting our ability to make scientific statements 16.6

Prediction 16.8, 16.42, 17.33
   testing 16.43
   see also Curve-fitting

Presley, Elvis 20.18

Pressure 17.5
   distribution in a fluid 20.25
   osmotic see Osmotic pressure
   wave see Sound

Principal axis
   of strain 20.19
   of stress 20.19

Probability
   of drug safety 16.1
   of finding electron in given region of space 16.29
   in quantum mechanics 16.2
   in radioactive decay 16.6
   in rejecting null hypothesis 16.28

Product (of chemical reaction)

Product (of vectors) see Cross product, Dot product

Projection 16.50

Proline see Amino acid

Proof
   of drug safety (as an example of scientific proof) 16.1
   mathematical 16.50, 20.1
   scientific 16.3, 20.1

Propellant (for rocket) 17.26

Propeller shaft 21.22

Protein 21.4
see also Alpha-helix, Fibrous protein

Proton 16.27

Pullman, Phillip 19.29

Pump, ion see Ion pump

Pure shear 20.19

Purine see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Purslow, Peter 16.41

PVC see Poly(vinyl chloride)

Pyrimidine see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Pythagoras’ theorem 16.50, 17.2
   in three dimensions 17.3

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Q

Q-factor (resonance) 18.23

Quality-factor (resonance) see Q-factor

Quadratic equation
   solution by factorisation 20.37
   solution by formula 18.5

Quantum 19.19

Quantum mechanics 19.27
   interpretation of 19.29
   see also Quantum theory

Quantum theory 19.19
   and distribution laws 20.26
   and electron energy levels in atom 16.29
   when Newton’s laws of motion don’t work 16.2
   and the photoelectric effect 19.23
   see also Quantum mechanics

Questionnaire 20.4

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter R

R0 see Reproduction number

Racemic mixture 20.29

Radar 18.8

Radial strain 20.5

Radian (measurement of angle) 17.11

Radiation
   electromagnetic see Electromagnetic radiation
   of heat 19.19

Radioactive decay 16.6

Radioactivity 16.6

Radio wave 18.8, 19.9

Radium 16.36

Radius (bone in arm) see Elbow

Radius of curvature 21.19

Randall, John T 18.8

Raoult, Didier 20.18

Rational number 17.11, 18.16

Reactant 16.33

Reaction (chemical) 16.33

Reaction force (mechanics) 17.34, 17.35

Real gas 19.2

Real number 18.16

Real part (of complex number) 18.16

Real solution 19.3

Recessive (genetics) 21.8

Recoil (of spring) 16.21, 16.49, 17.39, (of material) 20.6, (of rubber) 20.11

Recycling
   batteries 19.6
   polymers 20.7

Redox couple 19.7

Redox potential 19.7

Reducing agent 19.5

Reduction (chemistry) 19.5
   see also Redox potential

Refraction 19.21

Refractive index 19.21

Refrigerant 18.30

Refrigerator see Heat pump

Relative atomic mass 16.27

Relative molecular mass 16.33

Relative motion 16.9

Relative permeability (magnetic) 16.25

Relative permittivity (electrical) see Dielectric constant

Relativity
   Einstein’s general theory 16.16
   Galilean principle 16.4

Religion 16.22

Repair (of bone fracture) 20.15

Representative sample 20.4

Reproduction (of living things) 16.18
   number (epidemic) 20.12

Residue (in condensation polymer) 20.7

Resistance (electrical) 17.44
   of human hand 17.47

Resistivity 17.44

Resistor 17.44

Resonance 18.8
   in electrical system 18.23
   see also Fundamental frequency Resonant angular frequency, Resonant frequency

Resonance hybrid (in valence bond theory) 16.31

Resonant angular frequency 18.23

Resonant frequency 18.8, (in electrical system) 18.23

Response rate (to questionnaire) 20.4

Response to stimulus 16.18

Restoring force 21.17

Resultant (vector) 17.2

Retinol see vitamin D

Reverse osmosis 18.29
   see also Osmosis

Ribonucleic acid see RNA

Ribose 20.38, 21.2

Right-handed coordinate system 17.3

Right-handed helix 21.6

Rigidity modulus see Shear modulus

Rise-per-residue (in a helical molecule) 21.6

RNA 21.2

Rocket 17.26
   escaping earth 17.27
   launching satellite 17.28

Rolling 17.40

Rotating frame of reference 16.9, 17.29

Rotation
about bonds in a protein chain see Phi and psi
about double bond 16.47, 20.32
about peptide bond 21.7
   of earth 16.9
see also Rotational, shaft

Rotational
   inertia 17.38, 17.39
see also Second moment of area
   kinetic energy 17.38, 17.39
   motion 17.10, 17.12 (comparison with translational motion) 17.39
see also Rotation, shaft

Rubber 20.7
   elasticity of 20.11

Rummer, Reiner 17.9

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter S

s (energy level/orbital)
   in atom 16.29
   in ion 16.39, 16.40
   in molecule 16.30

Saddle point 20.27

Safety (in drug testing) 16.1

Sailplane see Glider

Salt (in food) 19.4
   see also Sodium chloride

Sample see Representative sample

Satellite 17.28

Saturated fat 16.47

Scalar 16.50
   product of vectors see Dot product

Scale (in boilers/kettles) see Hard water

Scattering (waves) 19.20

Scattering vector 19.20

Schrödinger, Irwin 19.3, 19.27

Schrödinger’s cat 16.15, 19.27

Schrödinger’s equation 19.27
   solution 19.28
   solution for electrons in molecules (simple explanation) 16.31, (more details) 19.28

Scientific law 16.2, 20.1
   and definitions 17.44

Scum see Hard water

Second (unit of time) 16.12

Second law of thermodynamics 16.34
   and diffusion 18.26
   and osmosis 18.27
   see also Elasticity of rubber, Entropy, Maxwell’s demon

Second moment of area 21.17
see also Polar second moment of area

Selective breeding 21.8

Self-inductance see Inductance

Semi-conservative replication (of DNA) 21.14

Semi-permeable membrane 18.27

Sensor 18.9

Series
   cosine 18.17
   convergent 17.11
   Fourier 18.14
   infinite 17.11
   sine 18.17

Shaft (rotating) 21.22

Shape
   of earth 17.9
   of molecules 16.30

Sharpness (of resonance peak) 18.23

Shear 20.19
   geometry of 20.22
   modulus see Shear modulus
   strain 20.19
   stress 20.19
see also Torsion

Shear modulus 20.19
   relationship to Young’s modulus 20.22

Ship 17.8

Shivering 20.17

Shock-absorber 18.9

Short circuit 19.6

SI units 16.12

Sigma (Greek letter σ) molecular orbital 16.31

Significance (statistical) see Statistical significance

Significant difference 16.28

Significant figures (in number) 16.7

Silicone 20.9

Simple harmonic oscillator 18.6, 18.11
  computer model of 19.17
   electrical 21.1
represented by exponential function 18.17
see also Vibrating string

Simple pendulum see Pendulum

Simple shear 20.19

Sine   16.50, 17.2
   differentiation 17.13
   series 18.17

Sliding 17.35

Small angle approximation (simple explanation) 18.7, (mathematical explanation) 18.6
cosine 18.6
sine 18.6
tangent 21.21

Soap 16.40, 16.48
   see also Hard water

Soaring 17.31, (bird) 17.32

Sodium
   atom 16.39
   chloride 16.39
      in food see Salt
   ion 16.39
   stearate 16.40

Soft solid 16.37

Solid 16.37
   diffusion in 18.26
   see also Deformation

Solution 16.39, 18.27
   see also Ideal solution, Molar solution, Real solution

Sound 18.13
   speed related to compressibility of liquid 20.35

Source (of wave) 18.10

Spanner 17.10

Spatial frequency 18.10, 18.14, 19.20

Specific optical rotation 20.29

Speed (simple explanation) 16.12, (rigorous definition) 17.4
   angular see angular speed
   not the same as velocity (simple explanation) 16.2, (mathematical explanation) 17.4
   of wave 18.10, (on vibrating string) 18.12, (electromagnetic) 19.12

Sperm 21.9, 21.10

Spin
   electron 16.29, 16.31

Spiral 21.3
see also Golden spiral, Logarithmic spiral

Spiral spring 17.39

Spring 16.49
   oscillating see Oscillating spring
   spiral see Spiral spring

Square-root 18.2, 18.15

Stability see Dynamic stability, Equilibrium

Stable equilibrium 21.16

Stahl, Franklin W 21.14

Stain (in microscopy) 21.9

Standard deviation 16.24
   in normal distribution 16.26

Standard electrode potential see Redox potential

Standard error 16.26

Standing wave 18.12, 19.13

Stapes see Ear

Starch 20.40

Static stability see Equilibrium

Statics 21.15

Statistics 21.15

States of matter 16.37

Statically indeterminate 19.29, 21.18

Statistical mechanics 16.38

Statistical significance 16.28

Statistical weight 16.35, 16.38

Steampunk 17.33

Stearate ion 16.40, 16.48

Steitz, Thomas 20.18

Stern, Otto 16.29

Stereoisomerism 20.32

Stiffness 16.49, 20.2
   of bone 20.14
   of material 20.2, 20.9
and strength 20.9  
see also Stress-strain curve

Stimulus, response to 16.18

Stokes, George G 20.36

Strain 20.2
   longitudinal see Longitudinal strain
   radial see Radial strain
   shear see Shear strain
   volumetric see Volumetric strain

Streamline 17.15

Streamline flow 17.15

Streamlining 17.18, 17.31

Strength 20.9
   of bone 20.14
and stiffness see Stiffness and strength
   see also Toughness

Streptococcus pneumoniae 21.11

Stress 20.2
   in a beam 21.17
shear see Shear stress
   stress fracture (orthopaedics) 20.13
   volumetric see Volumetric stress
   see also Fracture stress, Ultimate tensile stress, Yield stress

Stress-strain curve 20.10
   of rubber 20.11

Stretched rubber 20.11

Strickland, Donna 20.18

String see String theory, Vibrating string

Strong acid 17.49

Structural isomerism 20.32

Studying mechanics 20.33

Sucrose 20.37

Sugar 20.38
   see also Polysaccharide

Sulfuric acid 17.49

Sun
   movement of planets around 16.9
   movement relative to earth 16.9

Sundial 16.9

Supercooled liquid 16.37

Surface energy 20.13

Surface tension 17.43

Surfactant 16.48

Superposition 18.10

Sweat 20.17

System 17.30

Système internationale, see SI

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter T

t-test (statistics) 16.28

Tacoma narrows bridge 18.8

Tangent (of an angle) 16.50, 17.35

Tangent (to a curve) 21.18
perpendicular to radius (circle) 21.21

Tangent modulus 20.3

Tautomer 20.38

Tautomerism 20.38

Taylor’s theorem 20.3

Temperature 16.34
   control in body 20.17
   effect on density 16.44
   effect on density of water 16.45
   gradient 19.14

Temporary harness (of water) 19.1

Tendon 18.9

Tensile force/strain/stress 16.49, 20.2

Tension 16.49, 20.2

Tensor 20.2, 20.21

Terminal velocity 17.18

Tesla (unit of magnetic field strength) 16.25

Testing
   drug safety 16.1
   ideas 20.31
   predictions 16.43

Tetrahedral molecule 16.30, 16.40, 16.45

Theorem 16.50, 20.1
   Central limit
   Gödel’s   20.1
   Maclaurin’s 20.3
   Pythagoras’ 16.50
   Taylor’s 20.3

Theory (scientific) 16.2
   quantum see Quantum theory

Thermal (aerodynamics) 17.31, 19.18

Thermal conductivity 19.14, 19.15

Thermodynamics
   first law 16.21
   second law 16.34
   statistical 16.38
   third law 16.38
   see also Entropy, Free energy

Thermometer 16.24, 16.34

Thermoregulation 20.17

Thomson, George P 16.15, 19.24

Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin) 17.33

Thought experiment 19.26, 19.30

Three-dimensional vectors 17.3

Three-dimensional spiral 21.3

Throwing the hammer 17.13

Third law of thermodynamics 16.38

Thymine see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Time 16.12
   period (of oscillation/wave) 17.12, 18.8, 18.10

Tonnage (of ship) 17.8

Torque (simple explanation) 17.10, (vector explanation) 17.37, 17.39

Torsion 21.21, 21.22

Torsion angle 21.21

Toughness 20.10

Tower of babel 17.14

Trabecula 20.14

Trabecular bone see Cancellous bone

Trans (form of molecule) 20.32

Trans-unsaturated fats 16.47

Transition state (chemistry) 16.33

Translational motion 17.10, (comparison with rotational motion) 17.39

Transpose (of matrix) 20.21

Transverse wave 18.10, 18.13

Travelling wave 18.10

Trendline see Curve-fitting

Triceps 18.9

Triple helix 21.6

Tritium 16.27

True
   angular acceleration see Angular acceleration
   angular speed see Angular speed
   acceleration see Acceleration
   speed see Speed
   strain see Strain
   stress see Stress
   volumetric strain see Volumetric strain

Trump, Donald 20.18

Turbulence see Turbulent flow

Turbulent flow 17.15
   in flying 17.16

Turing, Alan M 16.15, 20.18, 21.11

Turning 17.34

Two-dimensional vectors 17.2

Tympanic membrane see Ear

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter U

Ultimate tensile stress 20.9, 20.10

Ulnar see Elbow

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene 20.7

Ultracentrifugation 21.13

Ultracentrifuge see Ultracentrifugation

Ultrasound 18.13

Ultraviolet 19.9

Uncertainty principle see Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

Unit (of measurement) 16.12
   in equations 17.41

Unit vector (two dimensions) 17.2, (three dimensions) 17.3

Universal indicator paper 18.1

Unsaturated fat 16.47

Unstable eqilibrium 21.16

Uracil see Base (in a nucleic acid)

Uranium
   atom16.27
   isotopes 16.27

Urine 20.16

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter V

Vacancy (in crystal lattice) 18.26

Valence bond theory 16.30, 16.31

Validation (of models) 16.43

Van der Waals, Johannes 19.2

van der Waals’ equation 19.2

van der Waals’ force 16.37
   see also Lennard-Jones potential function

Vasoconstriction 20.17

Vector 16.50, (two-dimensional) 17.2, (three-dimensional) 17.3, (in biology) 17.14
   matrix representation 20.21
   see also Cross product, Del, Dot product, Field, Scattering vector, Unit vector

Vector product see Cross product

Velocity 17.4, 17.39
   not the same as speed (simple explanation) 16.2, (as a vector) 17.4
   terminal see Terminal velocity
   see also Angular velocity

Vesicles, lipid 16.18

Vibrating string 18.12
   analogy with electron wave 19.28

Violin 18.12

Virial coefficient 19.2

Virus 16.18

Viscosity 17.17
   influence on flow in tube see Poiseuille’s equation
   see also Damping, Terminal velocity, Viscoelasticity

Viscoelasticity 17.43

Vitamin A
   delocalised molecular orbital in 16.31

Vitamin C 20.29

Vitamin D 16.36

Vitreous humour 20.39

Vocal cord see Larynx

Volt (unit of potential difference) 17.44

Volume, of cone 17.23

Volumetric strain 20.20

Volumetric stress 20.20

Vulcanisation 20.8
   see also Cross-link

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter W

Water
   in emulsions 16.48
   memory in homeopathy 16.46
   molecule 16.30, 16.45
   interactions between molecules 16.45
   solubility of ions in 16.39
   see also Hard water, Solution

Watson, James D 16.15, 21.2, 21.12, 21.14

Watt (unit of power) 16.23

Wave 18.10, 18.11
   cosine and sine 16.50
   electromagnetic see Electromagnetic wave
   energy 19.8
   equation see Wave equation
   intensity see Intensity
   longitudinal see Longitudinal wave
   power 19.8
   pressure see Sound
   represented by exponential function 18.17
   shape 18.14
   standing see Standing wave
   transverse see Transverse wave
   travelling see Travelling wave
   see also Diffraction, Refraction, Wave-particle duality

Wave equation 19.12
   see also Schrödinger’s equation

Wave function 18.10
   interpretation for electron wave 19.28, 19.29

Wavelength 18.10

Wave mechanics see Schrödinger’s equation

Wavenumber 18.10

Wave-particle duality 19.24, 19.25, 19.29

Wax 16.37

Weak acid 16.40, 17.49

Weight 16.17
   statistical 16.35, 16.38

Weinberg, Steven 19.29

Wilkins, Maurice HF 16.15, 20.7, 21.12

Wobbly bridge see Millenium bridge

Wollf’s law 20.15

Work (simple explanation) 16.20, (rigorous explanation) 17.36

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter X

X chromosome 21.9, 21.10

Xeno’s paradox 16.6

X-ray 19.9
   absorptiometry see DEXA
   crystallography 18.14
   diffraction (by rubber) 20.11, (by fibrous proteins) 21.7
fibre diffraction 21.7, 21.12

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Y

Y chromosome 21.9, 21.10

Yettram, Alan L 21.18

Yield stress 20.10

Young, Thomas 20.2

Young’s modulus 20.2
   relationship to bulk modulus 20.21
   relationship to shear modulus 20.22

Yu Youyou 20.18

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Z

Zeno see Xeno

Zero-point energy 16.38

Ziegler-Natta process 20.7


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