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Words, names and phrases starting with the letter A

**Acceleration** (simple explanation) 16.12, (rigorous definition) 17.4, 17.39

angular *see* Angular acceleration

due to gravity 16.16

**Accelerometer** 18.9

**Accuracy** 16.24

**Acetic acid** 17.49

**Achiral** 20.27

**Acid **(simple explanation),16.40, (detailed explanation) 17.49

acetic *see *Acetic acid

carboxylic *see *Carboxylic acid

dissociation constant 17.49, 18.5

fatty *see *Fatty acid

nucleic *see *Nucleic acid

phosphoric *see *Phosphoric acid

*see also* Acidity, Base, pH

**Acidity** 18.1

**Activation energy** 16.33, 22.19

**Active damping** 18.9

**Active process** 18.9

**Activity** (in distribution laws) 20.26

**Activity** (of solution) 19.3

**Activity coefficient** 19.3

**Actuator** 18.9

**Adaptive damping** *see* Active damping

**Addition** (of vectors) 17.2

**Adenine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

*see also* ADP, ATP

**Adenosine diphosphate** *see *ADP

**Adenosine triphosphate** *see *ATP

**Adiabatic compression** 20.24

*see also* Isothermal compression

**Adverse effects** (of drugs/food) 16.1

**Aether** *see* Ether

**Agar** 20.40

**Agarose** *see* Agar

**Agaropectic** *see* Agarose

**Aggrecan** 20.40

**Aileron** 17.34

**Air-conditioner** *see* Heat pump

**Aldohexose** 20.38

**Aliasing** 16.14

**Alkali** 17.50

*see also* Acid, Alkalinity, Base, pH

**Alkalinity** 18.1

**Allele **21.8

**Allotrope** 22.19

**Allotropy **22.19

**Alpha **(Greek letter α) **helix **21.7

**Alternating current** 17.45

**Altimeter** 20.25

**Amine** 20.7

**Amino acid** 21.4

**Ammonia**

molecule 16.40

production 16.33

**Ammonium ion** 16.40

**Amorphous solid** 16.37

**Amp** (unit of electrical current) 16.25, 17.44

**Amphiphile** 16.48

**Amphiphilc** 16.48

**Amplitude** (of oscillation/wave) 18.10, 18.11

**Amu** (atomic mass unit) 16.27

**Amylopectic** *see* Starch

**Amylose** *see* Starch

**Analogy** (between electrical and mechanical systems) 18.24

**Analogy **(between motion in a circle, simple harmonic oscillators and waves) 18.11

**Analogy** (between translational and rotational motion) 17.39

**Analyser** (of polaroid light) 20.28

**Angle** 17.11

of incidence 19.21

of refraction 19.21

*see also* Glide angle

**Angular**

acceleration 17.12, 17.39

aperture (of lens) 22.1

displacement 17.11

frequency 17.12

kinetic energy *see* Rotational kinetic energy

momentum 17.39

motion *see* Circular motion

resonant frequency 18.23

speed 17.12

velocity 17.12, 17.39

**Animal experiments** 18.18

**Anion** 16.39

*see also* Polyanion

**Anisotropic compression** 20.20

**Annulus fibrosus** 20.39

**Anode** 19.6

**Annihilation of mass** to create energy 16.21, 17.41

**Anomer** *see* Tautomer

**Antibonding molecular orbital** 16.31

**Anticoagulant** 20.40

**Anticodon **21.23

**Anti-parallel double helix** 21.6

**Anti-particle** 17.41

**Anti-science** 17.9

**Arc** (of circle) 17.11

**Arccos** 17.3

**Archimedian spiral **21.3

**Archimedes’ principle** 17.5, (used to measure density) 17.7

**Arctan** 17.2

**Argand plane **18.16

**Arnott**, Struther 21.7

**Articular cartilage** 18.9, 20.39

aggrecan in 20.40

**Arup Group** (consulting engineers) 18.8

**Ashkin**, Arthur 20.18

**Aspartic acid** *see *Amino acid

**Aspden**, Richard M 16.22, 21.18

**Association** (statistical), not the same as cause 16.10

**Astbury**, William T 21.7, 21.12

**Atom** 16.27

energy levels for electrons in 16.29

x-ray scattering by *see* X-ray scattering

* see also* Bohr radius

**Atomic mass**

relative 16.27

unit 16.27

**Atomic number** 16.27

**Atomic orbital** 16.29

**Atomic scattering factor** 22.15

**Atomic weight** 16.27

**Auxetic material** 20.5

**Average**

acceleration *see* Acceleration

speed *see* Speed

**Avery**, Oswald T 21.11

**Avogadro’s hypothesis**

as example of scientific theory 16.2

**Avogadro’s number** 16.27, 17.48

relating Boltzmann’s constant and ideal gas constant 18.25

**Axial direction** (in a cyclic molecule) 20.38

**Axle **21.22

Words, names and phrases starting with the letter B

**Babel**, tower of *see* Tower of Babel

**Bacteria**, growth of 16.5

**Bad** (subjective word to avoid) 16.36

**Base** (of a logarithm) 18.3

**Base **(in DNA/nucleic acid) 21.2, 21.12

**Base** (something that reacts with a hydrogen ion) 16.40, 17.50

dissociation constant 17.50, 18.5

**Battery** *see* Cell

**Balancing** 17.22

**Beam **21.17, 21.18, 21.19

*see also* Statically indeterminate

**Belief** (scientific) 17.9

**Benefits** (of science) 18.18

**Bernouilli**, Daniel 17.15, 17.33, 22.8

**Bernouilli’s equation** 17.15

assumptions in 20.35

used to explain why planes fly 17.16

*see also* Navier-Stokes equation

**Beryllium**

atom 16.29

**Biceps** *see *Muscle

**Bi-concave** (lens) *see *Lens

**Bi-convex** (lens) *see *Lens

**Binary digit** *see *Bit

**Biology** 16.41

**Bird**

flying 17.32

sitting on electrical cable (without being electrocuted) 17.47

**Bit **21.11

**Black body** *see* Ideal radiator

**Black swan** (proving not all swans are white) 16.2

**Blinded control trial** 16.46

**Bohm**, David 19.29

**Bohr radius** 22.15

**Boiling point** 16.37

**Boltzmann**, Ludwig 16.22, 16.35, 16.38, 17.33, 20.26

**Boltzmann distribution** 20.25, 20.26

**Boltzmann statistics** *see* Boltzmann distribution

**Boltzmann’s constant** 16.35, 16.38

relationship to ideal gas constant 18.25

**Bond** (chemical) 16.31

angle 21.7

coordination, 16.30

covalent 16.30

double 16.47

length 21.7

*see also* Molecular orbital

**Bonding molecular orbital** 16.31

**Bone** 18.9, (composition and structure)

cell 20.15

fracture 20.14, 20.15

mineral 20.14

*see also* Ear, Elbow

**Boot**, Harry 18.8

**Boron**

atom 16.29

**Bose-Einstein condensation** 20.26

**Bose-Einstein distribution** 20.26

**Boson** 20.26

**Boundary layer** 20.37

**Bowditch**, Nathanial 22.18

**Bowditch curves ***see *Lissajou’s figures

**Boyle’s law** 18.25

**Brake fluid** (as example of incompressible liquid) 17.5

**Brake horsepower** 16.23

**Branson**, Herman R 21.7

**Brønsted**, Joannes 17.49

**Brønsted-Lowry** **acid** 17.49

**Buckling** 16.49

**Bulk modulus** 20.20

*and* incompressible fluid flow

relationship to Young’s modulus 20.21

**Bunn**, Charles W 21.7

**Burning** 16.33

*see also* Oxidation

**Butterfly effect** 19.29

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter C

**Calcium**

chloride 16.39

hydroxide 16.40

ion 16.39

oxide 16.39, 16.40

*see also* Bone mineral, Hard water

**Calculator** 18.4

**Calibration** 16.24

**Camber** 17.34

**Cancellous bone** 20.14

fracture 20.15

**Cantilever ***see *Beam

**Capacitor** (brief mention) 16.25, (detailed explanation) 18.19, 18.20

energy of charged 18.24

** Carassus auratus** 21.8

**Carbohydrate** 20.38

*see also* Polysaccharide

**Carbon**

allotropes 22.19

atom 16.29

**Carbon dioxide**

formation 16.33

molecule 16.30

**Carboxylic acid** 16.40

**Carnot**, Sadi 20.24

**Caro**, Anthony 18.8

**Catenary **22.8

**Cartesian coordinate system** 16.50

*see also* Polar coordinate system, Vectors

**Cartesian sign convention** (optics) 22.1

**Cartilage** 20.39

*see also* Articular cartilage

**Catalyst** 16.33

**Cathode** 19.6

**Cation** 16.39

**Cause**, not the same as association 16.10

**Caustic curve** 22.7

**Cavity magnetron** 18.8

**Cell** (biological – smallest part of a living thing) 16.18

*in* bone 20.15

division *see *Meiosis, Mitosis

endosteal 20.15

hair *see* Ear

mast *see* Mast cell

**Cellulose **20.40

**Celsius** (scale of temperature) 16.34

**Central limit theorem** 16.26

**Centre**

of curvature 21.19

of gravity 17.23

of mass 17.21, 17.23

of symmetry 22.12

**Centrifugal force** (brief mention) 17.13, (explanation) 17.29

*see also* Centrifugation

**Centrifuge** *see *Centrifugation

**Centripetal force** 17.13

*and* shape of earth 17.9

*see also* Satellite, Turning

**Ceramic** 20.14

**CFD** *see* Computational fluid dynamics

**CGS** units 17.14

**Changing mapping** (of integral) 22.15 (brief mention), 22.16 (detailed explanation)

**Chaos theory** 19.29

**Chaplin**, Charlie 20.18

**Chargaff**, Erwin 21.2

**Charge** (electrical) 16.25, 17.44

*of *electron 16.27

*of *neutron 16.27

*of *proton 16.27

**Charles’ law** 18.25

**Chemical bond** 16.31

**Chemical equation** 16.31

**Chemical reaction** 16.33

*of* optical isomers 20.29

**Chemistry** 16.41

**Chiral** 20.27

**Chirality** 20.27

*of *amino acids 21.4

*of *three-dimensional spiral 21.3

*see also* Mirror

**Chlorine**

atom 16.27, 16.39

ion 16.39

**Chlorophyll** 20.40

**Christ**, Jesus 20.18

**Chromatic aberration** 22.5

**Chromatid **21.9

**Churchill**, Winston S 20.18

**Circle **(geometry of) 21.3

*see also* Circular motion

**Circuit** (electrical) 19.6

**Circular motion** 18.11

*see also* Aliasing, Rotational motion

**Circularly polarised light** 20.32

** Cis** (form of molecule) 20.32

**Cis****-unsaturated fat **16.47

** Cis-platin** 20.32

**Clockwork** 16.49

**Closed-cell foam** 20.39

**Closed system** 16.34

**Cochlea** *see* Ear

**Code ***see *Genetic code

**Codon **21.23

**Coefficient of kinetic friction** 16.20, 17.35

**Coefficient of sliding friction** *see* coefficient of kinetic friction

**Coherent** (light) 19.20

**Collagen** 20.14, 20.39

triple helix 21.6

x-ray diffraction by 21.7

**Collision** *see* Elastic collision, Inelastic collision

**Colour** 19.9

**Combustion chamber** 17.26

**Complex conjugate** 18.16

**Complex number** 18.16

**Compliance** (material property) 20.6

**Component** (of a vector) 16.50, (two-dimensional) 17.2, (three-dimensional) 17.3

**Compound** 16.30

**Compression** 16.49

anisotropic *see* Anisotropic compression

of gas 20.23, 20.24

isotropic *see* Isotropic compression

related to van der Waals’ force and electrons 22.9

*see also* Compressible fluid

**Compressible fluid** 20.35

**Compressive force/strain/stress** 16.49, 20.2

**Compton scattering** 22.14

**Computational fluid dynamics** (CFD) 16.43, 17.17, 20.36

*see also* Computer model, Validation

**Computer model** 19.17

*of* infection 20.12

*see also* Computational fluid dynamics, Finite element analysis, Validation

**Condensation polymer** 20.7

**Condenser lens** *see *microscope

**Conduction band** 16.31

**Conductor** (of electricity) 17.44

**Conduction** (of heat) 19.14, 19.15

**Conductivity**, thermal *see* Thermal conductivity

**Cone** 17.23

**Confidence interval** 16.28

**Confidence limits** 16.26, 16.28

**Confusion**, in science 17.14

**Conjugate acid** 17.50

**Conjugate base** 17.50

**Conservation of energy** 16.21

in fluid flow 17.15

**Conservation of mass**

in fluid flow 17.15

**Conservation of momentum** 17.30

**Constant of integration** 17.19

**Constructive interference** 18.10

**Continuity equation** (in fluid flow) 17.15

**Control** (in experiment), 16.46

**Control**

*of* chemical composition of body 20.16

*of* movement of body 18.9

*of* temperature of body 20.17

**Convection** 19.18

**Convergent series** 17.11, 18.15

**Converging **(lens) *see *Lens

**Coordinate system** see Cartesian coordinate system, Polar coordinate system

*see also* Vectors

**Coordination bond** 16.30, 16.31, 16.40

**Corey**, Robert B, 21.7

**Cornering** *see* Turning

**Cortical bone** 20.14

fracture 20.15

**Cosh **22.8

**Cosine** 16.50, 17.2

as sum of exponential functions 22.8

differentiation 17.13

series 18.17

small angle approximation 18.6

*of* sum of angles 19.13

wave 16.50

**Coulomb** (unit of electrical charge) 16.25, 17.44

**Coupled differezntial equation** 22.17

**Coupled oscillators** 22.18

**Crick**, Francis HC 16.15, 21.2, 21.12, 21.14

**Critical angle** (refraction) 22.5

**Cross-link** 20.8

*in* gel 20.39

*in *protein 21.4

*in* rubber 20.8

**Cross product** (of vectors) (brief mention) 17.29, (explanation) 17.37

**Crossing-over** (chromosomes) 21.10

**Cryogenic preservation** 16.32

**Crystal** 16.37

defect in 18.26

ionic 16.39

**Crystallography** *see* X-ray crystallography

**Cumulative sum** 17.11

**curl** 20.34

**Current** (electrical) 16.25, 17.44

effect on human body 17.47

*see also* Alternating current

**Curvature **21.19

**Curve-fitting** 19.2

**Cusp **22.7

**Cyclic compound** 20.38

**Cycloid** 17.40

**Cysteine ***see *Amino acid

**Cytosine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter D

**D** (form of optical isomer) 20.27

**Dali Lama** 20.18

**Dalton** (unit) 16.27

**Dalton**, John 16.27

**Damping** 18.9

*in* human body 18.9

**Darwin**, Charles 20.18

**Darwin’s bulldog** *see* Huxley, Thomas

**Dashpot** 18.9

**Da Vinci**, Leonardo 17.33

**Davisson**, Clinton 19.24

**De Broglie**, Louis 19.24, 19.29

**Debye**, Peter 19.3

**Debye-Hückel theory** 19.3

**Decay**

exponential (simple definition) 16.6

radioactive 16.6

**Deception** *see* Diminishing deception

**Deduction **(mathematical proof by) 22.10

**Defect** (in crystal) 18.26

**Definite integral** 17.19

**Deflection **(of a beam) 21.17

**Deformation**

(change in dimension of material) 20.2

(change in shape of material) 20.19

(isotropic compression of material) 20.20

*of* spring (in tension/compression) 16.49, (in torsion)

*see also* Elasticity, Hooke’s law, Poisson’s ratio, Plastic deformation

**Degree** (measurement of angle) 17.11

**Deionised water** 19.1

**Del** (**∇** ) 20.34

*see also* Laplacian

**Delocalised molecular orbital** 16.31, (and peptide bond) 21.7

**Democratus** 16.27

**Density** 16.44

changes in fluid 20.25, 20.35

measurement (solid) 17.7

of water 16.45

*see also* Archimedes’ principle, Density gradient ultracentrifugation, Floating

**Density gradient ultracentrifugation** 21.13

*see also* Semi-conservative replication

**Deoxyribonucleic acid** *see *DNA

**Deoxyribose **21.2

**Derivative **(mathematics) 22.10

**Descartes**, Rene 16.50

**Deflection **(of a beam) 21.17

**Design**

of experiments 16.3

**Destructive interference** 18.10

**Determinant** (of a matrix) 17.37

representing curl 20.34

**Deterministic** (view of physics) 19.29

**Deuterium** 16.27

**Development** (of living things) 16.18

**DEXA** 20.14

**Dextrorotatory** 20.29

**Dhanjal**, Avtarjeet 16.22

**Diagonal matrix** 20.21

**Dialysis** 18.27

in kidney 20.16

**Diamond **22.19

**Diastereoisomers** 20.30

**Dielectric** 18.19

breakdown 18.19

**Dielectric constant** 16.25

and solubility in water 16.39

**Diet**

salt in 19.4

**Difference**, significant 16.28

**Differential equation** (brief mention) 18.6, (detailed explanation) 19.10

*see also* Coupled differential equation, Ordinary differential equation, Partial differential equation

**Differentiating **22.10

**Differentiation** 17.4

chain rule 22.10

changing a variable 17.4

*of* cosine and sine 17.13

*of* exponential functions 18.15

*of* logarithms 18.15

partial *see* Partial differentiation

*of* product of two functions (product rule) 17.4, 22.10

*of* quotient of two functions (quotient rule) 22.10

repeated 22.10

*of* sum of two functions 22.10

**Diffraction** 19.20

*of* electrons 19.23

*see also* X-ray diffraction

**Diffusion** 18.26

constant 19.14

equation *see* Diffusion equation

gradient 19.14

through membrane 18.27

*see also* Fick’s law

**Diffusion equation** 19.15

solution 19.16

**Digestion** 18.27

*of *fat 16.47

*of *protein 21.4

**Dimensions** (relationship to mass, length and time) 17.41

**Dimensional analysis** 17.42

**Diminishing deception** 17.25

**Dirac**, Paul AM 19.27, 20.36

**Direction**

*of* force 16.50

of polarisation 20.28

of propagation (of wave) 18.10

**Discharge** (of capacitor) 18.19

**Discontinuous helix** 21.6

**Disorder**

related to entropy 16.38

**Dispersion **(optics) 22.5

**Displacement** 17.4, 17.39

angular 17.11, 17.39

**Disaccharide** 20.38

**Dissipation of energy** 17.17

**Dissociation constant** *see* Acid dissociation constant, Base dissociation constant

**Dissolve** 16.39

**Distance** 16.12

*see also* Light year

**Distilled water** 19.1

**Distribution** Boltzmann

*see*Boltzmann distribution

Gaussian

*see*Gaussian distribution

laws (for particles with different energies) 20.26

normal

*see*Gaussian distribution

**div** 20.34

**Diverging **(lens) *see *Lens

**DNA **(chemical composition),** **21.2, (genetic material) 21.11, (double helix) 21.12

*see also* Semi-conservative replication, Genetic information

**Dominant **(genetics) 21.8

**Dot product** (of vector) 17.13

**Double-blinded controlled trial** 16.46

**Double bond** 16.47

**Double helix **(brief mention) 21.2, (detailed explanation) 21.6

*see also* DNA

**Drag** 17.17

*see also* Damping

**Driveshaft **21.22

**Drivetrain** 21.22

* Drosophila melanogaster* 21.10

**Drug** (testing) 16.1, 16.46, 18.18

**Dry cell** (electrical) 19.6

**Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry** *see* DEXA

**Ductile** 20.10, 20.13

fracture 20.13

**Dynamics **21.15

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter E

** e** (2.718…) (brief mention) 18.3, (detailed explanation) 18.15

**Ear** 18.13

**Earth** (electrical) 17.44

**Earth **(planet)

escaping 17.27

gravitational field of

movement in solar system 16.9

shape of 17.9

**Eccentricity** (of ellipse), 22.18

**Ecology** 22.17

**Ecosystem** 22.17

**Education** (in science) 16.15, 17.44

*see also* Studying mechanics

**Einstein**, Albert 16.11, 16.15, 16.16, 19.3, 19.23, 19.26, 19.29, 20.18

**Elastic collision** 17.30

**Elastica **21.19

**Elasticity **20.6

*of* rubber 20.11

*see also* Viscoelasticity

**Elbow** (bending of) 18.9

**Electric field** (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.24

*see also* Electric vector, Electromagnetic wave

**Electric vector** (electromagnetic radiation) 20.28

**Electrical** **charge** 16.25

**Electrical current** 16.25

*see also* Alternating current

**Electrical energy** 17.45

**Electrical resistance** *see* Resistance

**Electrode** 19.7

*see also* Anode, Cathode

**Electromagnetic radiation** 19.9

*see also* Polarised light

**Electromagnetic wave** 19.9

speed 19.12

**Electron** 16.27

density (x-ray crystallography/diffraction) 22.14

energy levels in atoms 16.29

energy levels in molecules 16.31

interaction with x-rays 22.14

microscope *see *microscope

spin 16.29, 16.31

wave *see* Wave-particle duality

x-ray scattering by *see *X-ray scattering

*see also* Photoelectron

**Electronic music** *see* Music

**Element** 16.27

**Elementary particle** 22.9

**Embryo **21.10

**Emulsifying agent** 16.48

**Emulsion** 16.48

**Enantiomer** *see* Optical isomer

**Endosteal cell** *see* Bone cell

**Energy** 16.21

activation *see *Activation energy

use by living things 16.18

zero-point *see* Zero-point energy

*see also* Electrical energy, Free energy, Kinetic energy, Potential energy, Wave energy, Work

**Energy levels**

for electrons in atoms 16.29

**Engineering** strain

*see*Strain

stress

*see*Stress

**Enrichment of uranium-238** 16.27

**Entropy** 16.34

Boltzmann’s (statistical) definition 16.35, 16.38

*and* life 16.41

negative *see* Information

*see also* Elasticity of rubber, Maxwell’s demon, Second law of thermodynamics

**Environment **(influencing phenotype) 21.8

**Enzyme**

lock and key analogy for substrate binding 20.29

**Epidemic** 20.12

**Equation**

*of *curve 22.10

*of *straight line 22.10

**Equatorial direction** (in molecule) 20.38

**Equilibrium **20.33, 21.15, 21.16

*see also* Metastable equilibrium, Stable equilibrium, Unstable equilibrium

**Escape velocity** 17.2

**Essential amino acid** 21.4

**Essential fatty acid** 16.47

**Ether** (medium for propagating electromagnetic waves) 19.9

**Euler**, Leonard 18.17

**Euler’s relation** 18.17

**Everett**, Hugh 19.29

**Exercise**

*and* osteoporosis prevention 20.15

**exp** *see* *e*

**Experiment** decisions based on 16.28

design of 16.3

*on*living animals 18.18

purpose of 16.3, 20.1

testing a model 16.42

*see also*Thought experiment

**Excited state** 16.29

**Exponential decay** (simple explanation) 16.6, (explanation using *e*) 18.15

**Exponential growth** (simple explanation) 16.5, (explanation using *e*) 18.15

**Exponential function** 18.15

representing simple harmonic oscillator/wave 18.17

**Extensive property** 16.34

**Extracellular matrix** 20.39

**Extrapolation** 16.8

**Extrinsic property** 16.34

**Eyepiece lens** *see *micrroscope

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter F

**F1 hybrid** 21.8

**Factorial** (*n*!) 18.15

**Faith** (in science) 16.32

**Falling** 16.42, 17.20

in fluid 17.17

*see also* Parachute

**Famous scientists** 20.18

**Farad** (unit of capacitance) 18.19

**Faraday**, Michael 18.21

**Fat** 16.47

**Fatality rate** 20.12

**Fatigue fracture** 20.13

**FEA** *see* Finite element analysis

**Fermi-Dirac distribution** 20.26

**Fermion** 20.26

chirality of 20.27

**Fetus ***see *Foetus

**Feynman**, Richard 17.15, 19.29

**Fibrous protein** 21.7

**Fick’s law** 19.14

*see also* Diffusion equation

**Field**

electrical (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.24

gravitational (simple explanation) 16.25, (further explanation) 17.24

magnetic (simple explanation) 16.25

**Filler** (in material) 20.8

*in* bone 20.14

**Finite element analysis** (FEA)

validation 16.43

**First law** (Newton’s) *see* Newton’s laws of motion

**First law of thermodynamics** 16.21, 16.34

**Fischer projection** 20.38

**Fixed points** (for defining temperature scale) 16.34

**Flight** *see* Flying

**Floating** 16.44, 17.6

ship 17.8

**Flow** 17.15

of electric charge 17.44

property of fluid 16.37

in a tube 20.37

*see also* Bernoulli’s equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Poisseuille’s equation

**Fluorine**

atom 16.29

molecule 16.30

**Fluid** 16.37

*see also* Density, Diffusion, Flow, Ideal gas, Incompressible fluid, Real gas

**Flying**

bird 17.32

impossibility (according to Lord Kelvin) 17.33

plane 17.16, 22.9

rocket 17.26

*see also* Gliding

**Foam** 20.5, 20.39

*and* bone structure 20.14

**Focal length** (lens) 22.1

**Focal point** (lens/curved mirror) 22.1, 22.7

**Focus/focussed/focussing **(lens)** **22.1, (projector) 22.2, (magnfying glass) 22.3

**Foetus **21.10

**Food**

salt in 19.4

**Force **(simple explanation) 16.4, (more mathematical explanation) 17.39

acting on a solid object in fluid 17.6, 17.7. (including viscosity) 17.17

centrifugal *see* Centrifugal force

centripetal *see* Centripetal force

compressive *see *Compressive force

direction of 16.50

drag *see* Drag force

exerted by charge 16.25

exerted by magnetic field on a moving charge 16.25

reaction *see* Reaction force

relationship to momentum (simple explanation) 16.13, (more rigorous explanation) 17.39

tensile *see *Tensile force

*see also* Deformation, Isotropic compression, Vector

**Forced convection** 19.18

**Foster and Partners** (architects) 18.8

**Foucault’s pendulum** 16.9

**Fourier**, Joseph 18.14

**Fourier series** 18.14

**Fourier transform** 21.12

**Fracture** 20.9, (detailed explanation) 20.13

*of* bone 20.14

repair (in bone) 20.15

stress 20.10

**Frame of reference** (defining motion) 16.9, 16.12, 17.29

*see also* Inertial frame of reference, Non-inertial frame of reference, Rotating frame of reference

**Franklin**, Rosalind E 21.12

**Free-body diagram** 21.15

**Free energy** 18.27

**Free convection** 19.18

**Free surface** 16.37

**Frequency** 16.14

analysis 18.14

angular *see* Angular frequency

fundamental *see* Fundamental frequency

natural *see* Natural frequency

*of* pendulum 18.6, 18.7, 18.8

resonant *see* Resonant frequency

response 18.23

spatial *see* Spatial frequency

*of* wave 18.10

*see also* Harmonic, Pitch

**Friction** 16.19, 17.35

coefficient of 16.20, 17.35

**Fructose** 20.38

**Fruit-fly **see *Drosophila melanogaster*

**Function** (mathematics) 19.10, 22.10

**Fundamental **(frequency/wave) 18.12, 18.14, 19.13

*see also* Harmonic, Resonance

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter G

**Gaïa** 22.17

**Galilean principle of relativity** 16.4, 16.12, 17.29

**Galileo **Galilei 22.8

**Gamete **21.10

**Gamma ray** 19.9

**Gandhi**, Mahatma 20.18

**Gas** 16.37

compression of 20.23, 20.24

constant *see* Ideal gas constant

*see also* Fluid, Ideal Gas, Real gas

**Gaussian distribution** 16.26, 16.8

**Gedankenexperiment** *see* Thought experiment

**Gel** 20.39

polysaccharide 20.40

**Gene **21.8, (made of DNA) 21.11

*see also* Chromosome, Genetic code, Genetic information

**Genetic code** 21.24

**Genetics** 21.8

**Genetic information** (brief mention) 21.2, (more detail) 21.11, copying 21.14, Implementing 21.23

* see also* Genetic code

**Genghis Khan** 20.18

**Genotype **21.8

**Geometric centre** *see* Centroid

**Geometric isomerism** 20.32

**Geostationary satellite** 17.28

**Gerlach**, Walther 16.29

**Germer**, Lester 19.24

**Gibbs function** 18.27

**Girls** (preparing them to study science) 17.46

**Glass** 16.37

**Glide angle** 17.31, 17.32

**Glider** 17.31

**Gliding** 17.31, (bird) 17.32

**Globular protein** 21.4

**Glutamine ***see *Amino acid

**Glucose** 20.37

**Glycine ***see *Amino acid

**Glycogen** 20.40

**Golden spiral** 21.5

**Golden ratio** (1.618…) 20.31

*see also* Golden spiral

**Goldfish **21.8

**Good** (subjective word to avoid) 16.36

**Goose bumps** *see* Goose pimples

**Goose pimples** 20.17

**grad** 20.33

**Graph **(of function) 22.10

**Graphite **22.19

**Gravitational constant** 16.16

**Gravitational potential energy** 16.21

**Gravitational field** (simple explanation) 16.16, (further explanation) 17.24

*of* earth 17.9

*see also* Escape velocity, Satellite

**Gravitational waves** 16.16

**Gravity** 16.16, 17.20

centre of *see* Centre of gravity

*see also* Gravitational field

**Green**, Michael B 20.36

**Greenstick fracture** 20.14

**Ground state** 16.29

**Growth** of bacteria 16.5

exponential

*see*Exponential growth

of living things 16.18

**Guanine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

**Guitar** 18.12

**Gurdon**, John 20.18

**Guy rope** 21.16

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter H

**Haemoglobin **21.4

**Haber-Bosch process** 16.33

**Hair cell** *see* Ear

**Half-life** 16.6

of discharging capacitor 18.19

of radium 16.36

**Hammer**, throwing the *see* Throwing the hammer

**Hard water** 19.1

**Harmonic** 18.12, 18.14, 19.13

**Hawking**, Stephen 16.22, 20.18, 20.36

**Heat** 16.21, 16.34, 16.35

molecular motion and 16.35, 16.38

*see also* Conduction (of heat), Convection, Radiation

**Heat pump** (simple explanation)16.34, (detailed explanation) 18.30

**Heisenberg**, Werner 19.3, 19.26

**Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle** (simple explanation) 16.29, (detailed explanation) 19.26, (alternative view) 19.29

*and* zero-point energy 16.38

**Helix **21.6

**Helix net** 21.6

**Helmholtz function** 18.27

**Hemoglobin ***see *Haemoglobin

**Henderson**, Richard 20.18

**Henry** (unit of inductance) 18.21

**Henry**, Joseph 18.21

**Heparin** 20.40

**Herd immunity** 20.12

**Hertz** (unit of frequency) 16.14

**Hexose** 20.38

**Hidden variable theory** 19.29

**Hierachical level** 22.9

**Hinny** 16.18

**Histone **21.11

**Hitler**, Adolf 20.18

**Homeopathy** 16.46

**Homeostasis** 20.16, 20.17

**Homogeneous**

material 20.21

**Hooke**, Robert 20.3

**Hooke’s law** (brief mention) 20.2, (detailed explanation) 20.3

**Hormone **21.23

**Hormone replacement therapy** *see* HRT

**Horsepower** 16.23

**HRT** 20.15

**Hückel**, Erich 19.3

**Huggins**, Maurice L 21.7

**Humerus** *see* Elbow

**Hund**, Friedrich 16.29

**Huxley**, Thomas 20.18

**Huygens**, Christiaan 22.8

**Huygens’ principle** 19.20

**Hyaluronan** 20.40

**Hyaluronic acid** *see* Hyaluronan

**Hydrochloric acid** 17.49

**Hydrogel** 20.39

**Hydrogen**

atom 16.27, 16.29 *see also* MRI

x-ray scattering by *see *X-ray scattering

bond *see* Hydrogen bond

ion 16.39, 16.40 *see also* Acid, pH

isotopes 16.27

molecule 16.30

reaction with nitrogen 16.33

**Hydrogen bond** 16.45, (in alpha helix) 21.7, (in DNA) 21.12

**Hydronium ion** 16.40, 18.5

**Hydrophilic** 16.48

**Hydrophobic** 16.48

**Hydroxide ion** 16.40

*see also* Alkali, pH

**Hydroxyapatite** 20.14

**Hydroxyproline ***see *Amino acid

**Hyperbolic function** 22.8

**Hypertension** 17.14

**Hyperthermia** 20.17

**Hypothalamus** 20.17

**Hypothermia** 20.17

**Hypothesis**

null 16.28

scientific 16.2

statistical 16.1 16.28

**Hysteresis** 20.11

Words, names and phrases beginning with the letter I

**Ice** *see* Water

* i* (square root of -1) 18.16

** i, j, k** (unit vectors) 17.2, 17.3

**Ideal gas** 18.25

compression of 20.23, 20.24

*see also* Ideal gas equation, Real gas

**Ideal gas constant** 18.25

**Ideal gas equation** 18.25

application to solutions 18.28, 19.3

*see also* Partial differentiation

**Ideal heat engine** (brief explanation) 20.24

**Ideal radiator** 19.19

**Ideal solution** 18.28

*see also* Real solution

**Image **(projector) 22.2

**Imaginary number** 18.15

**Imaginary part** (of complex number) 18.15

**Immunity** *see* Herd immunity

**Impedance** (capacitative) 18.20, (inductive)18.22, (total) 18.23

**Impersonality** (of science) 16.22

**Incoherent** (light) 19.20

**Incompressible fluid** (simple explanation) 17.5, (detailed explanation) 20.35

**Incus** *see* Ear

**Indefinite integral** 17.19

**Indicator** (for measuring pH) 18.1

**Induction** (electromagnetic) 18.21

**Induction **(mathematical proof by) 22.10

**Inductor** 18.21

energy of current flowing in 18.24

**Inelastic collision** 17.30

**Inertia** *see* Mass, Rotational inertia

**Inertial frame of reference** 16.12, 17.29

**Infection** 20.12

**Infinite series** 17.11

**Information** 19.30

genetic *see *Genetic information

**Infrared radiation** 19.9

heat transmission by 19.19

**Insulin **21.4

**Integer** 18.16

**Integral** *see* Definite integral, Indefinite integral, Line integral

changing mapping *see *Changing mapping

*see also* Integration

**Integral helix** 21.6

**Integrate ***see *Integration

**Integration** 17.19

numerical 19.8

*of* sin^{2}*θ* 19.8

*see also* Differential equation

**Intensity** (of wave) 19.19

**Intensive property** 16.34

**Interpretations of quantum mechanics** 19.29

**Interference** 18.10

*see also* Diffraction

**Intervertebral disc** 18.9, 20.39

**Intrinsic property** 16.34

**Intuition** 19.12, 20.13

**Inverse **(or a mathematical operation) 22.12

**Inverted image** 22.2

**Ion** 16.39, 16.40

pump 20.16

**Ionic compound** 16.39

**Iron**

atom 16.27

catalyst in Haber-Bosch process 16.33

ion 16.39

oxides 16.39

dielectric constant 16.25

**Irrational number** 17.11, 18.15

**Isotope** 16.27

*see also* Semi-conservative replication

**Isomerism** 20.32

*see also* Optical isomer

**Isoprene** *see* Rubber

**Isothermal compression** 20.23

**Isotropic**

compression 20.20, 20.21

material 20.21

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter J

**Jackman**, L J 21.18

**Jacobi**, Carl 22.16

**Jacobian **(brief mention) 22.15, 22.16 (detailed explanation)

**Jardine**, Lisa 20.3

**Joist ***see *Beam

**Joule** (unit of work) 16.20, (unit of energy) 16.21

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter K

**Kelvin** (Lord) *see* Thomson, William

**Kelvin** (scale of temperature) 16.34

**Keratin **21.7

**Khorana**, H Gobind 21.24

**Kidney** 20.16

**Kilogramme** (unit of mass) 16.13

**Kinetic energy** 16.21, 17.38, 17.39

*of* rolling object 17.40

**Kinetically stable** (products of chemical reaction) 22.19

**Kirchhoff’s current rule** 17.47

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter L

**L** (form of optical isomer) 20.27

**Lactose** 20.38

**Laevorotatory** 20.29

**Laguerre polynomial** 19.28

**Lamb**, Horace 17.15

**Laminar **(flow) 17.15

**Laplace**, P-S 19.12

**Laplacian** (operator) 19.12

*see also* Del

**Larynx** 18.13

**Laser** 19.20

**Latent heat** (brief description) 16.18, (explanation) 16.37

of vaporisation (related to convection) 19.18

of vaporisation (related to heat pump) 18.30

**Latex** *see* Rubber

**Law**, scientific *see* Scientific law

**LCAO** *see* Linear combination of atomic orbitals

**Le Chatelier’s principle** 20.16

**Left-handed helix **21.6

**Legendre polynomial** 19.28

**Leibnitz**, Gottfried 22.8

**Lennard-Jones potential function** 20.3

**Lennon**, John 20.18

**Lens **22.1, (in projector) 22.2

**Lens maker’s equation** 22.1

**Lewis**, Gilbert N 17.49

**Lewis acid** 17.49

**Levitt**, Michael 20.18

**Levorotatory** *see* Laevorotatory

**Life** 16.18

on other planets 19.22

**Lift** (aerodynamics) 17.16, 17.31, 17.32

**Light** 19.9

heat transmission by 19.19

year *see* Light year

*see also* Coherent, Diffraction, Photoelectric effect, Polarised light, Refraction

**Light microscope** *see *microscope

**Light year** 19.22

**Limit** (mathematics) 17.4, 22.10

**Limitations** (of science) 16.22, 16.32, 20.12

**Limiting value** (mathematics) 17.4

**Line integral** 17.36

**Linear combination**

*of*atomic orbitals (LCAO) 16.31, 19.28

*of*solutions of differential equation 19.10

**Linear differential equation** 19.10

**Lintel ***see *Beam

**Lipid vesicles** 16.18

**Liquid** 16.37

pressure in 17.5

stationary 17.5

*see also* Fluid, Ideal solution, Real solution, Water

**Lissajou**, Jules A 22.18

**Lissajou’s curves ***see *Lissajou’s figures

**Lissajou’s figures** 22.18

**Lithium**

atom 16.29

**Litmus** 18.1

**Logarithm** 18.3

*in* calculation 18.4

*see also* Logarithmic spiral

**Logarithmic spira**l 21.5

**Lone pair** (of electrons) 16.40

**Longitudinal strain** 20.5

**Longitudinal wave** 18.13

**Lorenz**, Edward 19.29

**Lotka**, Alfred 22.17

**Lotka-Volterra equations** 22.17

**Loudspeaker** 18.13

**Lovelock**, James E 22.17

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter M

**Mach**, Ernst 19.26, 20.35

**Mach number** 20.35

**Maclaurin’s theorem** 20.3

**Macleod**, Colin M 21.11

**Macron**, Emmanuel 20.18

**Magnet** 16.25

**Magnetic bracelet** 16.46

**Magnetic field** 16.25

*see also* Electromagnetic wave

**Magnetic vector** (electromagnetic radiation) 20.28

**Magnesium** (in water) *see* Hard water

**Magnetism**

of oxygen 16.31

paramagnetism 16.31

**Magnification **(by magnifying glass) 22.3, (by projector) 22.2, (by microscope) 22.11

**Magnifying glass** 22.3

**Magnitude** (of complex number/vector) *see* Modulus

**Major axis** (of ellipse), 22.18

**Malleus** *see* Ear

**Mann-Whitney test** 16.28

**Mao Zhedong** 20.18

**Mapping **(of integral) *see *Changing mapping

**Marrow** *see* Bone

**Marshall**, Barry 20.18

**Marx**, Karl 20.18

**Mass** 16.13, 17.39

centre of *see* Centre of mass

*of* electron 16.27

measuring 16.17

*of* neutron 16.27

*of* proton 16.27

*of* ship 17.8

**Mass number** 16.27

**Mast cell** 20.40

**Mathematics**, its nature and role in science 16.50, 17.25, 20.1

**Matrix** (mathematics) 20.21

multiplication 20.21

representation of a vector (brief comment) 17.3

transpose of *see* Transpose

**Maximum** (value of function) 20.37

**Maxwell**, James Clerk 16.11, 16.15, 16.22, 16.35, 16.38, 17.33, 19.26, 19.29, 19.30

**Maxwell’s demon** 19.30

**McCarty**, Maclyn 21.11

**Mead**, Carver 19.29

**Mean** (average) 16.24

in normal distribution 16.26

**Measuring **angle 17.11

distance/length 16.12

electron energy levels in atoms 16.29

mass 16.13, 16.17, (of ship) 17.8

movement 16.12

pH 18.1

power (of a person) 16.23

temperature 16.24, 16.34

time 16.12

weight 16.17

**Mechanical energy** 16.21

**Mechanics** 20.33

**Meiosis **(brief mention) 21.9, (detailed explanation) 21.10

**Melting point** 16.37

**Membrane **(cell) 21.9

**Mendel**, Gregor 21.7

**Meselson**, Mathew s 21.14

**Messenger RNA** *see *mRNA

**Metabolism **22.9

**Metastable equilibrium** 21.16

**Methane**

molecule 16.30

**Metre** (unit of length) 16.12

**Micelle** 16.48

**Microphone** 18.13

**Microscope **22.11, 22.12, 22.13

**Microwave** 19.9

heat transmission by 19.19

oven 18.8

**Miescher**, Friedrick 21.2

**Millenium bridge** 18.8

**Millikan**, Robert A 16.27

**Mineral** *see* Bone mineral

**Minimum** (value of a function) 20.37

**Minor axis** (of ellipse) 22.18

**Mirror **22.4

*see also* Chirality

**Mitosis **21.9

**Model** 16.42, 18.6, 18.26

computer 17.9, 19.17, *of *molecule 21.7

*of* falling object 16.42

*of* molecule *see *Molecular model

validation 16.43

**Moduli **(plural of Modulus) *see *Modulus

**Modulus** (measuring deformation)

relationship between moduli 20.21, 20.22

*see* Bulk modulus, Tangent modulus, Shear modulus, Young’s modulus

**Modulus** (of a vector) 16.50, 17.2, 17.3, (of a complex number) 18.16

**Molar solution** 17.48

**Molarity** 17.48

**Mole** (in chemistry) 17.48

**Molecular orbital **16.31

**Molecular weight** 20.7

**Molecule** 16.30

**Moment **(of a force) 21.15

*see also* Torque

**Moment of inertia** *see* Rotational inertia

**Momentum** (simple explanation) 16.13, (vector definition) 17.39

of photon 22.4

*see also* Angular momentum, Conservation of momentum

**Monomer** 20.7

residue 20.7

**Monosaccharide** 20.38

**Monroe**, Marilyn 20.18

**Moore**, Kate 16.36

**Morgan**, Thomas H 21.10

**Mortality rate** 20.12

**Movement** 16.4

*of* body 18.9

change in 16.13

measuring 16.12

*of* planets in solar system 16.9

*of* sun (relative to earth) 16.9

**MRI** 18.8

**Mule** 16.18

**Multiverse** 19.29

**Muscle** controlling and initiating movement 18.9

conversion of chemical to mechanical energy in 16.33

**Music**, electronic 18.14

*see also* Sound

**Mussolini**, Benito 22.17

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter N

**Nabla** *see* Del

**Natural frequency** 18.8, 18.24

*and* standing wave 18.12

**Nautilus **(marine animal) 21.5

**Navier**, Claude-Louis 20.36

**Navier-Stokes equation** (brief mention) 17.15, 17.42, (detailed explanation) 20.36

derivation of Poiseuille’s equation from 20.37

**Near point** (of eye) 22.3

**Negative entropy** *see* Information

**Negative numbers **18.16

**Negative slope** 20.37

**Negentropy** *see* Information

**Neon**

atom 16.29

**Neutral** (solution) 18.1, 18.5

**Neutral axis** (beam) 21.17

**Neutron** 16.27

**Newton**, Isaac 16.2, 16.11, 17.33, 20.36

**Newton** (unit of force) 16.13

**Newton’s law of gravitation** 17.24

**Newton’s laws of motion** 16.2

first law 16.4

*see also* Centrifugal force, Frame of reference, Galilean principle of relativity

second law 16.4, 16.13

opposed by friction 16.19

*and* zero-point energy 16.38

third law

launching bird flight 17.32

*and *electrons 22.9

*and* Rocket propulsion 17.26

*see also* Reaction force

**Nirenberg**, Marshall W 21.24

**Nitrogen**

atom 16.29

molecule 16.30

oxides 16.30

reaction with hydrogen 16.33

**Node** (wave) 18.12, 19.13

**Non-ideal gas** *see* Real gas

**Non-inertial frame of reference** 17.29

**Non-integral helix** 21.6

**Non-parametric test** (statistical) 16.28

**Normal **(to surface) 22.4

**Normal distribution** *see* Gaussian distribution

**Normalisation** 19.16, 19.28

**Novoselov**, Konstantin 20.18

**Nucleic acid** 21.2

**Nucleotide **21.2

**Nucleus** (atomic) 16.6, 16.27

**Nucleus **(of biological cell) 21.9

**Nucleus pulposus** 20.39

**Null hypothesis** 16.28

**Number**,

irrational *see* Irrational number

rational 17.11

writing 16.7

**Numerical**

integration 19.8

methods 19.17

*see also* Computational fluid dynamics, Finite element analysis

**Nyjquist** , Harry 16.14

**Nyjquist** criterion 16.14 frequency 16.14

**Nylon** 20.7

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter O

**Objective lens** *see *microscope

**Oblique prism** *see *Prism

**Obvious** (facts, ideas etc.) 17.1

**Occam’s razor** 16.9

**ODE ***see *Ordinary differential equation

**Oestrogen** 20.15

**Ohm** (unit of electrical resistance) 17.44

**Ohm’s law** 17.44

**Oil** 16.47, 16.48

**Oligosaccharide** 20.38

**Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats** 16.47

**Open-cell foam** 20.39

**Optical activity** 20.29

**Optical axis** 22.11

**Optical isomer** 20.27

properties of 20.29

*see also* Diastereoisomer, Optical isomerism

**Optical isomerism** 20.32

*of* sugars 20.38

*see also* Optical isomer

**Optical rotation** 20.29

**Orbit** (of satellite) 17.28

**Orbital**

atomic 16.29

molecular 16.31

**Ordinary differential equation** 22.10

**Origin**

of Cartesian coordinate system 16.50

of Polar coordinate system 21.3

**Orthogonal Cartesian coordinate system** 16.50

*see also* Vectors

**Orthopter** 17.32

**Oscillating spring** 18.11

**Oscillation**

in observations 16.8

*see also* Simple harmonic oscillator

**Oscilloscope **22.18

**Osmosis** 18.27

*see also* Reverse osmosis

**Osmotic pressure** 18.27, 18.28, 19.3

*see also* Pressure

**Osteoblast** *see* Bone cell

**Osteoclast** *see* Bone cell

**Osteocyte** *see* Bone cell

**Osteoporosis** 20.14, 20.15

**Oxidation** 19.5

state *see* Oxidation state

*see also* Redox potential

**Oxidation state** 16.39

**Oxides**

of carbon 16.33

of nitrogen 16.30

**Oxidising agent** 19.5

**Oxygen**

atom 16.27, 16.29

ion 16.39

molecule 16.30, 16.31

paramagnetism 16.31

reactions of 16.33

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter P

** p** (energy level/orbital)

*in*atom 16.29

*in*ion 16.39, 16.40

*in*molecule 16.30

** p** (value from statistical test) 16.28

**Pandemic** 20.12

**Panting** (for temperature control in dogs) 20.17

**Parabola **22.6

**Paraboloid **22.6

**Parachute** 17.18

**Parallel double helix** 21.6

**Parallel universe** 19.29

**Paramagnetism** 16.31

**Partial derivative** *see *Partial differentiation

**Partial differential equation** 19.12, 22.10

changing a variable 19.16

*of* product of two functions 19.16

*see also* Del, Laplacian operator

**Partial differentiation** 19.11

**Particle** 17.21

**Pascal** (unit of pressure) 17.5

**Passive damping** 18.9

**Passive process** 18.9

**Path difference** (between waves) 18.10

**PDE ***see *Partial differential equation

**Pea **21.8

**Pendulum** (as example of simple harmonic oscillator) 18.6, (simple analysis of motion) 18.7

Foucault’s 16.9

**Pentose** 20.38

**Peptide bond** 21.7

**Percentage strain** 20.2

**Periodic time** *see* Time period

**Permanent hardness** (of water) 19.1

**Permanent magnets** 16.25

**Permeability** (magnetic)16.25

**Permeability of free space** 16.25

**Permittivity** (electrical) 16.25

**Permittivity of free space** 16.25

**PET** (positron emission tomography) 17.41

**pH** 18.1

calculating 18.5

control in body 20.16

meter 18.1

**Phase** (of oscillation/wave) 18.10

**Phase** (of matter) 16.37

**Phenotype **21.8

**Phi **(Greek letter * ϕ*) and

**psi**(Greek letter

*ψ*) angles determining three-dimensional shape of a protein chain 21.7

**Phosphoric acid** 21.2

**Photoelectric effect** (brief description) 16.18, (detailed explanation) 19.23

**Photoelectron** 19.23

**Photon** 19.23, (momentum of) *see *Momentum of a photon

**Photosynthesis** 20.40

**Physics** 16.41

**Pi** (Greek letter π, 3.141…) 17.11

**Pi** (Greek letter π) **molecular orbital** 16.31

**Piano** 18.12

**Pilot wave model** 19.29

** Pisum sativum** 21.8

**Pitch **(helix) 21.6

**Pitch** (music) 18.12

** pK_{a}** 18.5

** pK_{b}** 18.5

**Placebo** 16.46

**Planck**, Max 19.19

**Planck’s constant** 19.19

**Plane** *see* Flying, Glider, Turning

**Plane of polarisation** 20.28

**Plane polarised light** *see* Polarised light

**Planet**

movement in solar system 16.9

**Plastic** (material) *see* Polymer

**Plastic deformation** 20.10

**Play** (importance for developing intuition) 20.13

**Point of inflexion** *see* Saddle point

**Poiseuille**, Jean 20.37

**Poiseuille’s equation** 17.42

derivation by dimensional analysis 17.42

derivation from Navier-Stokes equation 20.37

**Poisson’s ratio** 20.5

*in* relationships between moduli 20.1, 20.22

*of* rubber 20.11

**Polar coordinate system** 20.37, (complete simple explanation) 21.3

*see also* Cartesian coordinate system, Spherical polar coordinates

**Polar second moment of area** 21.21

*see also* Second moment of area

**Polarimeter** 20.28

**Polarisation**

direction of *see* Direction of polarisation

plane of *see* Plane of polarisation

*see also* Polaroid

**Polariser** 20.28

*see also* Polaroid

**Polaroid** 20.28

**Polyanion **21.2

**Polybutene** 20.7

**Polycrystalline** 16.37

**Polyethene** 20.7

**Polyethylene** *see* Polyethene

**Polymer** 20.7

*see also* Nucleic acid, Polysaccharide, Protein, Rubber

**Polymerisation **20.7

**Polynomial** (curve) 19.2

**Polynucleotide **21.2

**Polypeptide **21.4

**Polysaccharide** (brief mention)20.38, (detailed account) 20.40

**Polystyrene** 20.9

**Polythene** *see* Polyethene

**Polyunsaturated fat** 16.47

**Poly(vinyl chloride)** 20.7

**Positive slope** 20.37

**Positron** 17.41

emission tomography *see* PET

**Post-transcriptional modification** (of amino acids) 21.24

**Potential** (electrical) 17.44

*in* nerve 18.13

redox *see* Redox potential

**Potential difference** (electrical) 17.44

*see also* Potential

**Potential energy** 16.21

*of* stretched spring 16.49, 17.39

*see also* Lennard-Jones potential function

**Power** (of number) 18.2

**Power** (physics) 16.23

*of* wave 19.8

**Precision** 16.24

in calculated results 16.7

limiting our ability to make scientific statements 16.6

**Predator** 22.17

**Prediction** 16.8, 16.42, 17.33

testing 16.43

*see also* Curve-fitting

**Presley**, Elvis 20.18

**Pressure** 17.5

distribution in a fluid 20.25

osmotic *see* Osmotic pressure

wave *see* Sound

**Prey** 22.17

**Principal axis**

of lens 22.1

of strain 20.19

of stress 20.19

**Prism **22.5

**Probability**

of drug safety 16.1

of finding electron in given region of space 16.29

in quantum mechanics 16.2

in radioactive decay 16.6

in rejecting null hypothesis 16.28

**Product** (of chemical reaction)

**Product** (of vectors) *see* Cross product, Dot product

**Projection** (mathematics) 16.50

**Projector **(optics) 22.2

**Proline ***see *Amino acid

**Proof**

of drug safety (as an example of scientific proof) 16.1

mathematical 16.50, 20.1

scientific 16.3, 20.1

*see also* Deduction, Induction

**Propellant** (for rocket) 17.26

**Propeller shaft** 21.22

**Protein **21.4

* see also *Alpha-helix, Fibrous protein, Genetic code, Implementing genetic information

**Proton** 16.27

x-ray scattering by *see *X-ray scattering

**Pullman**, Phillip 19.29

**Pump**, ion *see* Ion pump

**Pure shear** 20.19

**Purine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

**Purslow**, Peter 16.41

**PVC** *see* Poly(vinyl chloride)

**Pyrimidine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

**Pythagoras’ theorem** 16.50, 17.2

*in* three dimensions 17.3

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Q

**Q-factor** (resonance) 18.23

**Quality-factor** (resonance) *see* Q-factor

**Quadratic equation**

solution by factorisation 20.37

solution by formula 18.5

**Quantum **19.19

**Quantum mechanics** 19.27

interpretation of 19.29

*see also* Quantum theory

**Quantum theory **19.19

*and* distribution laws 20.26

*and* electron energy levels in atom 16.29

*when* Newton’s laws of motion don’t work 16.2

*and the* photoelectric effect 19.23

*see also* Quantum mechanics

**Questionnaire** 20.4

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter R

**R**_{0} *see* Reproduction number

**Racemic mixture** 20.29

**Radar** 18.8

**Radial strain** 20.5

**Radian** (measurement of angle) 17.11

**Radiation**

electromagnetic *see* Electromagnetic radiation

of heat 19.19

**Radioactive decay** 16.6

**Radioactivity** 16.6

**Radio telescope** 22.6

**Radium** 16.36

**Radius** (bone in arm) *see* Elbow

**Radius of curvature** 21.19

**Randall**, John T 18.8

**Raoult**, Didier 20.18

**Ray ***see *Ray tracing

**Ray tracing** 22.1, (related to direction of photons) 22.4

**Rational number** 17.11, 18.16

**Reactant** 16.33

**Reaction** (chemical) 16.33

**Reaction force** (mechanics) 17.34, 17.35

**Real gas** 19.2

**Real image** 22.2

**Real number** 18.16

**Real part** (of complex number) 18.16

**Real solution** 19.3

**Recessive **(genetics) 21.8

**Recoil** (of spring) 16.21, 16.49, 17.39, (of material) 20.6, (of rubber) 20.11

**Recycling**

batteries 19.6

polymers 20.7

**Redox couple** 19.7

**Redox potential** 19.7

**Reducing agent** 19.5

**Reduction** (chemistry) 19.5

*see also* Redox potential

**Reflection **22.4

*at *Concave surfaces 22.6

*see also* Total Internal Reflection

**Refraction** 19.21, 22.5, at curved surfaces 22.1

**Refractive index** 19.21

*see also* Dispersion

**Refrigerant** 18.30

**Refrigerator** *see* Heat pump

**Relative atomic mass** 16.27

**Relative molecular mass** 16.33

**Relative motion** 16.9

**Relative permeability** (magnetic) 16.25

**Relative permittivity** (electrical) *see* Dielectric constant

**Relativity**

Einstein’s general theory 16.16

Galilean principle 16.4

**Religion** 16.22

**Repair** (of bone fracture) 20.15

**Representative sample** 20.4

**Reproduction** (of living things) 16.18

number (epidemic) 20.12

**Residue **(in condensation polymer) 20.7

**Resistance** (electrical) 17.44

*of* human hand 17.47

**Resistivity** 17.44

**Resistor** 17.44

**Resolution** 22.13

**Resonance** 18.8

*in* electrical system 18.23

*see also* Fundamental frequency Resonant angular frequency, Resonant frequency

**Resonance hybrid** (in valence bond theory) 16.31

**Resonant angular frequency** 18.23

**Resonant frequency** 18.8, (in electrical system) 18.23

**Response rate** (to questionnaire) 20.4

**Response to stimulus** 16.18

**Restoring force** 21.17

**Resultant **(vector) 17.2

**Retinol** see vitamin D

**Reverse osmosis** 18.29

*see also* Osmosis

**Ribonucleic acid** *see *RNA

**Ribose** 20.38, 21.2

**Ribosomal RNA** see rRNA

**Ribosome **21.23

**Right prism** *see *Prism

**Right-handed coordinate system** 17.3

**Right-handed helix** 21.6

**Rigidity modulus** *see* Shear modulus

**Rise-per-residue** (in a helical molecule) 21.6

**RNA **21.2

see *also *mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

**Rocket** 17.26

escaping earth 17.27

launching satellite 17.28

**Rolling** 17.40

**Rotating frame of reference** 16.9, 17.29

**Rotation**

about bonds in a protein chain *see *Phi and psi

about double bond 16.47, 20.32

about peptide bond 21.7

*of *earth 16.9

*see also* Rotational, shaft

**Rotational**

inertia 17.38, 17.39

*see also* Second moment of area

kinetic energy 17.38, 17.39

motion 17.10, 17.12 (comparison with translational motion) 17.39

*see also* Rotation, shaft

**Rubber** 20.7

elasticity of 20.11

**Rummer**, Reiner 17.9

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter S

** s** (energy level/orbital)

*in*atom 16.29

*in*ion 16.39, 16.40

*in*molecule 16.30

**Saddle point** 20.27

**Safety** (in drug testing) 16.1

**Sailplane ***see* Glider

**Salt** (in food) 19.4

*see also* Sodium chloride

**Sample** *see* Representative sample

**Saturated fat** 16.47

**Scalar** 16.50

product of vectors *see* Dot product

**Scale** (in boilers/kettles) *see* Hard water

**Scattering** (waves) 19.20

**Scattering vector** 19.20

**Schrödinger**, Irwin 19.3, 19.27

**Schrödinger’s cat** 16.15, 19.27

**Schrödinger’s equation **19.27

solution 19.28

solution for electrons in molecules (simple explanation) 16.31, (more details) 19.28

**Scientific law** 16.2, 20.1

*and* definitions 17.44

**Scum** *see* Hard water

**Searchlight **22.6

**Second** (unit of time) 16.12

**Second law of thermodynamics** 16.34

*and* diffusion 18.26

*and* osmosis 18.27

*see also* Elasticity of rubber, Entropy, Maxwell’s demon

**Second moment of area** 21.17

*see also* Polar second moment of area

**Selective breeding** 21.8

**Self-inductance** *see* Inductance

**SEM** *see *microscope

**Semi-conservative replication** (of DNA) 21.14

**Semi-permeable membrane** 18.27

**Sensor** 18.9

**Series**

cosine 18.17

convergent 17.11

Fourier 18.14

infinite 17.11

sine 18.17

**Shaft **(rotating) 21.22

**Shape** of earth 17.9

*of*molecules 16.30

**Sharpness** (of resonance peak) 18.23

**Shear** 20.19

geometry of 20.22

modulus *see* Shear modulus

strain 20.19

stress 20.19

*see also* Torsion

**Shear modulus** 20.19

relationship to Young’s modulus 20.22

**Ship** 17.8

**Shivering** 20.17

**Shock-absorber** 18.9

**Short circuit** 19.6

**SI units** 16.12

**Sigma** (Greek letter σ) **molecular orbital** 16.31

**Sign convention** (optics) 22.1

**Signal generator** 22.18

**Significance** (statistical) *see* Statistical significance

**Significant difference** 16.28

**Significant figures** (in number) 16.7

**Silicone** 20.9

**Simple harmonic oscillator** 18.6, 18.11

computer model of 19.17

electrical 21.1

represented by exponential function 18.17

*see also* Coupled oscillator, Vibrating string

**Simple pendulum** *see* Pendulum

**Simple shear** 20.19

**Sine ** 16.50, 17.2

as difference between exponential functions 22.8

differentiation 17.13

series 18.17

small angle approximation 18.6

*of* sum of angles 19.13

wave 16.50

**Sinh **22.8

**Sliding** 17.35

**Small angle approximation** (simple explanation) 18.7, (mathematical explanation) 18.6

cosine 18.6

sine 18.6

tangent 21.21

**Soap** 16.40, 16.48

*see also* Hard water

**Soaring** 17.31, (bird) 17.32

**Sodium**

atom 16.39

chloride 16.39

in food *see* Salt

ion 16.39

stearate 16.40

**Soft solid** 16.37

**Solid** 16.37

diffusion in 18.26

*see also* Deformation

**Solution** 16.39, 18.27

*see also* Ideal solution, Molar solution, Real solution

**Sound** 18.13

speed related to compressibility of liquid 20.35

**Source** (of wave) 18.10

**Spanner** 17.10

**Spatial frequency** 18.10, 18.14, 19.20

**Specific optical rotation** 20.29

**Speed** (simple explanation) 16.12, (rigorous definition) 17.4

angular *see* angular speed

not the same as velocity (simple explanation) 16.2, (mathematical explanation) 17.4

*of* wave 18.10, (on vibrating string) 18.12, (electromagnetic) 19.12

**Spherical aberration** 22.6

**Spherical polar coordinates **22.15

**Spherically averaged** 22.15

**Spherically symmetrical** 22.15

**Spin**

electron 16.29, 16.31

**Spiral **21.3

* see also* Golden spiral, Logarithmic spiral

**Spiral spring** 17.39

**Spring** 16.49

oscillating *see *Oscillating spring

spiral *see *Spiral spring

**Stability ***see *Dynamic stability, Equilibrium

**Stable equilibrium** 21.16

**Stahl**, Franklin W 21.14

**Stain **(in microscopy) 21.9

**Standard deviation** 16.24

*in* normal distribution 16.26

**Standard electrode potential** *see* Redox potential

**Standard error** 16.26

**Standing wave** 18.12, 19.13

**Stapes** *see* Ear

**Starch** 20.40

**Static stability** *see *Equilibrium

**Statics **21.15

**Statistics **21.15

**States of matter** 16.37

**Statically indetermina**te 19.29, 21.18

**Statistical mechanics** 16.38

**Statistical significance** 16.28

**Statistical weight** 16.35, 16.38

**Steampunk** 17.33

**Stearate ion** 16.40, 16.48

**Steitz**, Thomas 20.18

**STEM ***see *microscope

**Stern**, Otto 16.29

**Stereoisomerism** 20.32

**Stiffness** 16.49, 20.2

*of* bone 20.14

*of* material 20.2, 20.9

*and *strength 20.9

*see also* Stress-strain curve

**Stimulus**, response to 16.18

**Stokes**, George G 20.36

**Strain** 20.2

longitudinal *see* Longitudinal strain

radial *see* Radial strain

shear *see* Shear strain

volumetric *see* Volumetric strain

**Streamline** 17.15

**Streamline flow** 17.15

**Streamlining** 17.18, 17.31

**Strength** 20.9

*of* bone 20.14

*and *stiffness *see *Stiffness and strength

*see also* Toughness

** Streptococcus pneumoniae** 21.11

**Stress** 20.2

in a beam 21.17

shear *see* Shear stress

stress fracture (orthopaedics) 20.13

volumetric *see* Volumetric stress

*see also* Fracture stress, Ultimate tensile stress, Yield stress

**Stress-strain curve** 20.10

*of* rubber 20.11

**Stretched rubber** 20.11

**Strickland**, Donna 20.18

**String** *see* String theory, Vibrating string

**Strong acid** 17.49

**Structural isomerism** 20.32

**Studying mechanics** 20.33

**Sucrose** 20.37

**Sugar** 20.38

*see also* Polysaccharide

**Sulfuric acid** 17.49

**Sun**

movement of planets around 16.9

movement relative to earth 16.9

**Sundial** 16.9

**Supercooled liquid** 16.37

**Surface energy** 20.13

**Surface tension** 17.43

**Surfactant** 16.48

**Superposition** 18.10

**Sweat** 20.17

**System** 17.30

**Système internationale**, *see* SI

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter T

**t-test** (statistics) 16.28

**Tacoma narrows bridge** 18.8

**Tangent** (of an angle) 16.50, 17.35

**Tangent **(to a curve) 21.18

perpendicular to radius (circle) 21.21

**Tangent modulus** 20.3

**Tanh **22.8

**Tautomer** 20.38

**Tautomerism** 20.38

**Taylor’s theorem** 20.3, 22.10

*see also* Maclaurin’s theorem

**TEM ***see *microscope

**Temperature** 16.34

control in body 20.17

effect on density 16.44

effect on density of water 16.45

gradient 19.14

**Temporary harness** (of water) 19.1

**Tendon** 18.9

**Tensile force/strain/stress** 16.49, 20.2

**Terminal velocity** 17.18

**Tesla** (unit of magnetic field strength) 16.25

**Testing**

drug safety 16.1

ideas 20.31

predictions 16.43

**Tetrahedral molecule** 16.30, 16.40, 16.45

**Theorem** 16.50, 20.1

Central limit

Gödel’s 20.1

Maclaurin’s 20.3

Pythagoras’ 16.50

Taylor’s 20.3

**Theory** (scientific) 16.2

of “Everything” 16.21, 22.9

quantum *see* Quantum theory

**Thermal** (aerodynamics) 17.31, 19.18

**Thermal conductivity** 19.14, 19.15

**Thermodynamically stable** (products of chemical reaction) 22.19

**Thermodynamics**

first law 16.21

second law 16.34

statistical 16.38

third law 16.38

*see also* Entropy, Free energy

**Thermometer** 16.24, 16.34

**Thermoregulation** 20.17

**Thomson**, George P 16.15, 19.24

**Thomson, J J** 21.14

**Thomson scattering** 22.14

**Thomson**, William (Lord Kelvin) 17.33

**Thought experiment** 19.26, 19.30

**Three-dimensional vectors** 17.3

**Three-dimensional spiral **21.3

**Throwing the hammer** 17.13

**Third law of thermodynamics** 16.38

**Thymine ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

**Time** 16.12

period (of oscillation/wave) 17.12, 18.8, 18.10

**Tonnage** (of ship) 17.8

**Torque** (simple explanation) 17.10, (vector explanation) 17.37, 17.39

**Torsion angle** 21.21

**Total internal reflection** 22.5

**Toughness** 20.10

**Tower of babel** 17.14

**Trabecula** 20.14

**Trabecular bone** *see* Cancellous bone

** Trans** (form of molecule) 20.32

**Transcription **(of genetic information) 21.23

**Transfer RNA** *see *tRNA

**Transition state** (chemistry) 16.33, 22.19

**Translation **(of genetic information) 21.23

**Translational motion** 17.10, (comparison with rotational motion) 17.39

**Transmission microscope** *see *microscope

**Transpose** (of matrix) 20.21

**Trans****-unsaturated fat** 16.47

**Transverse wave** 18.10, 18.13

**Travelling wave** 18.10

**Trendline** *see* Curve-fitting

**Triangle **(angles in) 22.1

**Triceps** 18.9

**Triple helix** 21.6

**Tritium** 16.27

**tRNA **21.23

**True**

angular acceleration *see* Angular acceleration

angular speed *see* Angular speed

acceleration *see* Acceleration

speed *see* Speed

strain *see* Strain

stress *see* Stress

volumetric strain *see* Volumetric strain

**Trump**, Donald 20.18

**Turbulence** *see* Turbulent flow

**Turbulent flow** 17.15

in flying 17.16

**Turing**, Alan M 16.15, 20.18, 21.11

**Turning** 17.34

**Two-dimensional vectors** 17.2

**Tympanic membrane** *see* Ear

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter U

**Ultimate tensile stress** 20.9, 20.10

**Ulnar** *see* Elbow

**Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene** 20.7

**Ultracentrifugation **21.13

**Ultracentrifuge ***see *Ultracentrifugation

**Ultrasound** 18.13

**Ultraviolet** 19.9

**Uncertainty principle** *see* Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle

**Unit** (of measurement) 16.12

in equations 17.41

**Unit vector** (two dimensions) 17.2, (three dimensions) 17.3

**Universal indicator paper** 18.1

**Unsaturated fat** 16.47

**Unstable eqilibrium** 21.16

**Uracil ***see *Base (in a nucleic acid)

**Uranium**

atom16.27

isotopes 16.27

**Urine** 20.16

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter V

**Vacancy** (in crystal lattice) 18.26

**Valence bond theory** 16.30, 16.31

**Validation** (of models) 16.43

**Van der Waals**, Johannes 19.2

**van der Waals’ equation** 19.2

**van der Waals’ force** 16.37, (and electrons) 22.9

*see also* Lennard-Jones potential function

**Vasoconstriction** 20.17

**Vector** 16.50, (two-dimensional) 17.2, (three-dimensional) 17.3, (in biology) 17.14

matrix representation 20.21

*see also* Cross product, Del, Dot product, Field, Scattering vector, Unit vector

**Vector product** *see* Cross product

**Velocity** 17.4, 17.39

not the same as speed (simple explanation) 16.2, (as a vector) 17.4

terminal *see* Terminal velocity

*see also* Angular velocity

**Vesicles**, lipid 16.18

**Vibrating string** 18.12

analogy with electron wave 19.28

**Violin** 18.12

**Virial coefficient** 19.2

**Virtual image** 22.3

**Virus** 16.18

**Viscosity** 17.17

influence on flow in tube *see* Poiseuille’s equation

*see also* Damping, Terminal velocity, Viscoelasticity

**Viscoelasticity** 17.43

**Vitamin A**

delocalised molecular orbital in 16.31

**Vitamin C** 20.29

**Vitamin D** 16.36

**Vitreous humour** 20.39

**Vocal cord** *see* Larynx

**Volt** (unit of potential difference) 17.44

**Volume**, of cone 17.23

**Volumetric strain** 20.20

**Volumetric stress** 20.20

**Volterra**, Vitto 22.17

**Vulcanisation** 20.8

*see also* Cross-link

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter W

**Water**

*in* emulsions 16.48

memory in homeopathy 16.46

molecule 16.30, 16.45

interactions between molecules 16.45

solubility of ions in 16.39

*see also* Hard water, Solution

**Watson**, James D 16.15, 21.2, 21.12, 21.14

**Watt** (unit of power) 16.23

**Wave** 18.10, 18.11

cosine and sine 16.50

electromagnetic *see* Electromagnetic wave

energy 19.8

equation *see* Wave equation

intensity *see* Intensity

longitudinal *see* Longitudinal wave

power 19.8

pressure *see* Sound

represented by exponential function 18.17

shape 18.14

standing *see* Standing wave

transverse *see* Transverse wave

travelling *see* Travelling wave

*see also* Diffraction, Refraction, Wave-particle duality

**Wave equation** 19.12

*see also* Schrödinger’s equation

**Wave function **18.10

interpretation for electron wave 19.28, 19.29

**Wavelength** 18.10

**Wave mechanics** *see* Schrödinger’s equation

**Wavenumber** 18.10

**Wave-particle duality** 19.24, 19.25, 19.29

**Wax** 16.37

**Weak acid** 16.40, 17.49

**Weight** 16.17

statistical 16.35, 16.38

**Weinberg**, Steven 19.29

**Wilkins**, Maurice HF 16.15, 20.7, 21.12

**Wobbly bridge** *see* Millenium bridge

**Wollf’s law** 20.15

**Work** (simple explanation) 16.20, (rigorous explanation) 17.36

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter X

**Xeno’s paradox** 16.6

**X-ray **19.9

absorptiometry *see* DEXA

crystallography 18.14

diffraction 22.14 (by DNA) 21.12 (by rubber) 20.11, (by fibrous proteins) 21.7

*see also* Diffraction, X-ray fibre diffraction, X-ray crystallography

fibre diffraction 21.7, 21.12

scattering 22.14, 22.15

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Y

**Yettram**, Alan L 21.18

**Yield stress** 20.10

**Young**, Thomas 20.2

**Young’s modulus** 20.2

relationship to bulk modulus 20.21

relationship to shear modulus 20.22

**Yu Youyou** 20.18

Words, names and phrases begining with the letter Z

**Zeno** *see* Xeno

**Zero-point energy** 16.38

**Ziegler-Natta process** 20.7

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